noun: the inherent complex of attributes that determine a person's moral and ethical actions and reactions ("Education has for its object the formation of character - Herbert Spencer")
"In organ pipes, of a certain calibre, very sensitive waves occur at intervals; as according to the character of the sound evolved; but on a combination of resonators composed of brass tubes of more than nine in number, a wave of sound, induced by certain chords passing over them, produces high vortex action of the air enclosed in them. The vibration of tuning forks induces alternate condition of the air that surrounds them, if in open atmosphere; but quite a different action presents itself when the forks are exercised in resonating tubes, set to thirds of the mass chord they represent. Then high vortex action is the instant result. Vibrators cannot be set promiscuously in tubes, and get such results, any more than a musician can render a musical composition on the violin before tuning it." [Appendix I]
The vapor from the liberator, registered at 20,000 lbs. per square inch has a range of atomic motion of 1333 1/3 the diameter of the atmospheric molecule with constant rotary vibratory action. At 10,000 lbs., 666 2/3, at 5,000, 333 1/3, at 2500, 166 2/3, at 1250, 83 1/3, at 625, 41 2/3. The higher the range of atomic motion the greater its tenuity and pressure. The very evolution on the negative shows a vacuum of a much higher order than was ever produced before confounding all theory to analyze. The highest vacuum known is 17.999999, or not quite 30 inches, but Keely produced etheric vacuums repeatedly of 50 to 57 inches ranging down to 30 inches or 57 lbs. All operations of nature have for their sensitizing centers of introductory action, triple vacuum evolutions. These evolutions are centered in atomic triple revolutions, highly radiophonic in their character and thoroughly independent of all outside forces in their spheres of action. No conceivable power, however great, can break up their independent centers. These triple centers are the foundation of the universe, and mathematically considered, the respective and relative motion of these atomic triplets, gravitating to and revolving around each other, is about one and one-third of their circumference. The problem of this action, when analyzed mathematically, (taking it as the quadrature of the circle) would baffle mathematical science to bring it to a numerical equation. Every revolving body is impressed by nature with certain laws making it susceptible of the operation of force, which being applied, impels motion. These bodies never can approach nearer than a certain limit, nor farther than a certain point. They are, at some mean point, made perfectly equal, and may therefore be considered as one force and as one element. It matters not that other and disturbing forces exist outside or inside the space these bodies revolve in, because if this force must be considered as acting uniformly, applying itself to each of these bodies in a way to produce a perfect equation on all, it is as if this outside force were nonexisting. [Snell Manuscript - The Book, page 2]
"I have been repeatedly urged to repeat my disintegrations of quartz rock, but it has been utterly out of my power to do so. The mechanical device with which I conducted those experiments was destroyed at the time of the proceedings against me. Its graduation occupied over four years, after which it was operated successfully. It has been originally constructed as an instrument for overcoming gravity, a perfect, graduated scale of that device was accurately registered, a copy of which I kept, I have since built three successive disintegrators set up from that scale, but they did not operate. This peculiar feature remained a paradox to me until I had solved the conditions governing the chords of multiple masses, when this problem ceased to be paradoxical in its character. As I have said, there are no two compound aggregated forms of visible matter that are, or ever can be, so duplicated as to show pure, sympathetic concordance one to the other. Hence the necessity of my system of graduation, and of a compound device that will enable anyone to correct the variations that exist in compound molecular structures, or in other words to graduate such, so as to bring them to a successful operation." [Keely] [Snell Manuscript - The Book, MINERAL DISINTEGRATION, page 7]
"When the proper impulse is given to induce the rotation with pure alternating corpuscular action, the condition of action become perpetual in their character, lasting long enough from that one impulse to wear out any machine denoting such action, and on the sympathetic stream eternally perpetual. The action of the neutral or focalizing centers represents molecular focalization and redistribution, not having any magnetism associated with them, but when the radiating arms of their centers are submitted to the triple compound vibratory force, representing their mass thirds, they become magnetic and consequently cease their rotation. Their rotation is induced by submitting them to three different orders of vibration, simultaneously giving the majority to the harmonic third." (Keely) [Snell Manuscript - The Book, DISTURBANCE OF MAGNETIC NEEDLE, page 8]
"The golden rule of true spirit[ual] science: For every one step that you take in the pursuit of higher knowledge, take three steps in the perfection of your own character." [Rudolf Steiner]
"Yes, we did produce a near perfect Republic. But will they keep it, or will they, in the enjoyment of plenty, lose the memory of freedom? Material abundance without character is the surest way to destruction." [Thomas Jefferson]
"Knowledge will forever govern ignorance; and a people who mean to be their own governors must arm themselves with the power which knowledge gives." [James Madison (Letter to W.T. Barry, August 4, 1822)]
"Life is a series of experiences, each of which makes us bigger, even though it is hard to realize this. For the world was built to develop character, and we must learn that the setbacks and griefs which we endure help us in our marching onward." [Henry Ford]
"As has been indicated, a little more patient, a little more tolerant, a little more humble. But . . . not a tolerance that becomes timid - this would make rebellion in self. Not a patience that is not positive. Not an humbleness that becomes morbid or lacking in beauty. For as orderliness is a part of thy being, so let consistency - as persistency - be a part of thy being." Cayce (1402-1)
"The perfect character of a musical sound is the result of the harmonious workings of the vibrations of the "perfectly elastic" air with the perfectly elastic string. The forces which act on the air and string being proportional to the distances passed through, makes the times of the vibrations equal,1 and the pitch of the sound the same throughout. These varied forces and distances, with the equal times of the vibrations, and with the simultaneous compressions and expansions of the air and string, are all according to the universal laws of Continuity and Duality. [Scientific Basis and Build of Music, page 24]
The ratio of 1:2 is essentially simple in its character, and any power of the prime 2 always produces a note like itself. It is a law in musical science that doubling or halving a number never changes its character. Whatever ratios and notes are produced from the first power, the square, and the cube of any number, the same kind of ratios and notes will be produced, in the genesis of octaves, by the doubles or halves of that number. On this account the prime 2 has unlimited powers in producing notes, and is used in the first place in getting a series of octaves from 1 as unity; [Scientific Basis and Build of Music, page 26]
"The prime 5, like the prime 3, produces new notes. One of these, namely A5, is derived from unity, i.e., the note produced by the ratio of 1:2; the second note is produced from the note derived from the first power of 3, namely E15; and the third is produced from the note derived from the second power of 3, namely B45. The notes thus produced by the prime 5 are the middles, that is, the thirds of the chords. As it is the second and third powers of 3 which possess great centrifugal force, and not the first power of that number; and as it is only the first power of the number 5 which Nature employs in this business, so this makes the character of the notes produced by the prime 5 to depend on the character of the notes from which they are derived. One of the 3 notes produced by the prime 5 is derived from unity, that is the note produced by the ratio of 1:2, and like that note it is strongly acted on by the force of gravity.1 A second note produced by the prime 5 is derived from the note produced by the second power of 3, and like that note it possesses increased" [Scientific Basis and Build of Music, page 27]
"The third note of the octave scale, E, the center of the tonic chord in the key of C, is the center of the system. It is the note which has the least tendency either upward or downward, and it has immediately above it in the octave scale the note which has the greatest amount of specific gravity, F, the root of the major subdominant; and immediately beneath it the note which has the greatest amount of specific levity, D, the top of the major dominant. Thus the root of the subdominant chord and the top of the dominant are placed right above and below the center of the system, and the gravity of the one above, and the levity of the one below, causes each of them to move in the direction of the center. These tendencies are seen in the scale at whatever key it may be pitched, and by whatever names the notes may be called. And it is on account of this permanency of character of the notes that the third note of the scale, E, in the key of C, has a lower effect1 than the second, D; and that the fourth note, F, has a lower effect than either the first, second, or third; the fifth note, G, has a higher effect than the fourth, F; but the sixth, A, has a.." [Scientific Basis and Build of Music, page 28]
"lower effect than the fifth; the seventh, B, has a higher effect than the sixth; but the eighth, C, has a lower effect than the seventh. If the effects of notes or chords depended wholly on the mathematical primes by which they are measured and located, or the ratios inherent in them, then the effects of the tonic, subdominant, and dominant chords would have been alike, for these chords are measured by exactly the same primes, and have exactly the same ratios. It is the position of the tonic chord which gives it its importance and not any special primes by which it is produced, nor any special ratios inherent in it. Notes by the power of 2 have a pure unmixed and invariable character. Notes by the first, second, and third powers of 3 have different degrees of centrifugal force; and the character of the notes produced by the first power of 5 depends on the character of the notes from which they are derived. The final character of notes and chords is determined by the amount of force which they have acquired from the way in which they have been derived, and from their position in the system. And no matter where these notes may be afterwards placed, like chemical elements, they never lose their original forces and tendencies. What Tyndal says of the inorganic chemical elements of the brain is true of the inorganic notes of music, "They are all dead as grains of shot." It is the organic state which gives the notes and chords their gravities and (levity|levities, and these two tendencies, the one upward and the other downward, constitute the vital principle of music. It is true that the mathematical operation is required to give birth and life to music, and that the mathematical system gives the knowledge of causes down to the law of gravitation, yet the artistic effects are fully realised from the tempered system deriving its organic harmony from this vital principle of music. The centrifugal tendencies of the notes of the subdominant, are too strong to be at all disturbed by the system being tempered. The enormous power of these chords corrects the effect which might otherwise arise from tempering, as the enormous power of the sun corrects the perturbations of the planets." [Scientific Basis and Build of Music, page 29]
character of its own. And as Nature has constituted them, these various forces all converge to the Center of the Tonic Chord, and, with the exception of the interval of the octave itself, the notes of the tempered scale being a little nearer each other than the mathematically perfect notes, these converging forces and this tempering mutually assist each other, and give a greater decision to the resolution of chords. [Scientific Basis and Build of Music, page 36]
If the effects of notes and chords had depended entirely on their mathematical ratios, then the effect of the subdominant, tonic, and dominant would have been alike; for these three chords have exactly the same ratios. It is the law of position which gives the tonic chord its importance, and not any special ratios embodied in its structure. The ratio of 2 to 1 has a pure, unmixed, invariable character, always realized in the interval of the octave. The notes produced from 1 by the first, second, and third powers of 3 have different degrees of centrifugal force. The character of the notes produced by the first power of 5 depends on the character of the notes from which they are derived, namely, 1, 3, and 9. The final character of the notes and chords derived by the same ratios is determined by the amount of force which they have acquired from the way in which they have been derived, and from their position in the system; and no matter where these notes may afterwards be [Scientific Basis and Build of Music, page 37]
But, as the subdominant sixth and dominant seventh suggest that the chromatic chord should be a 4-note chord, we must find out how Nature completes this diatonic chromatic triad and makes it a 4-note chord, and that according to its own intrinsic character as of minor thirds. Nature has always a rationale in her operations which it is ever delightful to discover. Wedged in between the minor dominant and the major subdominant, this triad, B D F, has already B, the top of the dominant minor, for its root; and F, the root of the subdominant major, for its top; and its middle is the mysterious D which, in its two positions as root of the minor subdominant and top of the major dominant, stands at the two extremes of the whole twofold diatonic key, bounding and embracing all; and which in its two degrees as D26 2/3 and D27 claims kindred with both minor and major modes of the twofold key system. Surely this Janus-faced D, looking this way toward the minor and that way to the major, seems to say, "the complement of this chord, of which I am the heart, is not far to seek nor hard to find on either side." It has already B in common with the minor dominant; the very next step is to the middle of this chord, G. Roots and tops of chords may not be altered, but middles may with impunity be flattened or sharpened as occasion may require. No two of them in succession in the chord-scale have the same structure; the chromatic triad, in claiming this middle, claims it sharpened, for it must have [Scientific Basis and Build of Music, page 54]
It is the function of the chromatic chord, in the course of its systematic development, to bring two notes, the one above and the other below, in semitonic progression to each of the three notes of the tonic chord; and likewise, without interfering with the imperial character of the tonic chord, it brings two notes in semitonic progression to each note of the other two chords; so that, although at first the subdominant and dominant chords are only like satellites to the tonic chord, they, with their chromatic chords, are now raised to the dignity of planets as it were, having the chromatic chords as their satellites. [Scientific Basis and Build of Music, page 57]
The individual character of any note, and the comparative degree of contrast between any two notes in the system, depends on at least three different causes. The first is the genetic relation of the two notes. If the one note has 2 vibrations and the other 3, or the one 4 and the other 5, or the one 5 and the other 8, because of this, and because of the excess of the vibration of the one over the other, "a third sound" or "grave harmonic" being awakened between them, the different ratios have different degrees of complexity, and, in a general way, the greater the complexity the greater the [Scientific Basis and Build of Music, page 60]
A third cause of difference of contrast in notes is the individual character which belongs to them according to their place in the genetic scale - that is, their birthplace character - the amount, namely, of centrifugal force which they have inherited. [Scientific Basis and Build of Music, page 61]
Although the system is composed of only three ratios, which in themselves moreover, are of a very fixed character, yet mobility and variety are chief features among the notes of the system. Great changes are effected by small means. By lowering the second of the major D one comma, the ratio of 80:81, [Scientific Basis and Build of Music, page 61]
The chord-scales may be either major or minor, or may be found in a sweetly mingled condition; a piece may be wholly major or wholly minor, but not wholly chromatic. Chromatic chords do not usually succeed each other, but come into diatonic compositions for the purpose of producing certain effects peculiar to them, or by solving difficulties which may arise in composition. They are used as musical condiments to spice or sweeten a passage; but nobody makes pudding all of spice or sugar. The structure, character, and progression of the various chord-scales will be found so amply set forth in several parts of this work that it is not necessary to enlarge further in this place. [Scientific Basis and Build of Music, page 69]
The varied effect of position in chords. When a chord stands as C E G C, having its root also at the top, it has its softest, dullest, most united effect; it is undramatic, with little contrast. When it stands as E G C E, having its third at the top and bottom, it has a more ticklish, interesting, far-away effect. In reveries composers often finish thus, as if it had vanished - an unsettled effect. When it stands as G C E G, with its top at top and bottom, it has its most dominant character - loud, swelling. In the position C E G C it stands mixingly with the subdominant C E f G a C, and in this its first position its unseen filling in is chiefly from the region of gravity; hence its soft, grave, dull, heavy effect; and it passes very easily to the subdominant chord. When it stands as G C E G it stands mixingly with the dominant G b C d E G, and has its third position and most brilliant effect and uprising, for its unseen filling in is then chiefly from the region of levity; and it passes easily to the dominant chord. When in its second position, its middle position E G C E, its unseen filling in is mixingly both subdominant and dominant, E f G a b C d E; it has then its most interesting and puzzling effect; on the one hand its softest, dullest, and one-est, on the other hand its most brilliant effect, as if it would at once both sink and soar. [Scientific Basis and Build of Music, page 72]
less variety of effect than we find in the diatonic chords; for although these chords may appear with their notes diversely named, there are still only the three. On account of their cosmopolitan character they need, and they have, no compounding with anything else. They are themselves at home everywhere; like a universal joint, they can turn any way, and affiliate in all directions. Being 4-note chords, and all of minor thirds, their effect is always minor, and they fall with loving softness to the diatonic chords to which they resolve. How this chord in its germ is found in the diatonic chord-scale; how it becomes a 4-note chord of minor thirds; how it variously resolves, each one of the three, in three manners with 24 tonic chords - all this is so fully set forth in the pre-note and treatise on the chromatic chord that it need not be more discussed in this place. See also Plates XVI., XVII., XVIII., XIX., and XX. [Scientific Basis and Build of Music, page 73]
In getting the length of a string, in inches or otherwise, to produce the scale of music, any number may be fixed on for the unit; or for the vibrations of the root note any number may be fixed on for the unit; but in the fractions which show the proportions of the notes of the scale, there is no coming and going here; this belongs to the invariables; there is just one way of it. Whatever is not sense here is nonsense. It is here we are to look for the truth. The numbers which express the quantities and the numbers which express the motions are always related as being of the same kind. The fractions bring their characters with them, and we know by this where they come from. 1/4 of a string gives a note 2 octaves above the whole string, no matter what may be its length; 2 has exactly the same character as 1; 2/4 gives the note which is 1 octave above the whole string; but in the case of 3/4 here is a new ingredient, 3; 3/4 of a string gives a note which is a fifth below the [Scientific Basis and Build of Music, page 75]
Having found the framework of the major scale by multiplying F1 three times by 3, find the framework of the minor by dividing three times by 3. But what shall we divide? Well, F1 is the unbegotten of the 25 notes of the great genetic scale; B45 is the last-born of the same scale. We multiply upward from F1 for the major; divide downward from B45 for the minor. Again, B45 is the middle of the top chord of the major system, a minor third below D, the top of that chord, and the top of the whole major chord-scale, so B is the relative minor to it. Now since the minor is to be seen as the INVERSE of the major, the whole process must be inverse. Divide instead of multiply! Divide from the top chord instead of multiply from the bottom chord. Divide from the top of the minor dominant instead of multiply from the root of the major subdominant. This will give the framework of the minor system, B45/3 = E15/3 = A5/3 = D1 2/3. But as 1 2/3 is not easily compared with D27 of the major, take a higher octave of B and divide from it. Two times B45 is B90, and two times B90 is B180, and two times B180 is B360, the number of the degrees of a circle, and two times B360 is B720; all these are simply octaves of B, and do not in the least alter the character of that note; now B720/3 is = E240/3 = A80/3 = D26 2/3. And now comparing D27 found from F1, and D26 2/3 found from B720, we see that while E240 is the same both ways, and also A80, yet D26 2/3 is a comma lower than D27. This is the note which is the center of the dual system, and it is itself a dual note befittingly. [Scientific Basis and Build of Music, page 81]
"The organic structure of music is formed by the three ratios of 1:2, 1:3, and 1:5, from the laws of quantities and motions; but as it is only the ratio of 1:2 that has a pure, unmixed, invariable character, and as the notes produced by the first, second, and third powers of THREE have different degrees of centrifugal force, and the character of the notes produced by the first power of FIVE depends on the character of the notes from which they are derived, so the final character of the notes and chords is determined by the amount of force which they have acquired from the way in which they have been derived, and from their position in the system; and no matter how these notes may be afterwards placed, like chemical elements, they never lose their original force. [Scientific Basis and Build of Music, page 95]
dominant; and either of these chords may also follow the tonic; but when the dominant follows the subdominant, as they have no note in common, the root of the subdominant is added to the dominant chord, and this forms the dominant seventh; and when the subdominant follows the dominant, the top of the dominant is added to the subdominant, and this forms the subdominant sixth. The sixth and seventh of the octave scale is the only place these two compound chords are positively required; but from their modifying and resolvable character they are very generally used. When the dominant is compounded by having the root of the subdominant, its specific effect is considerably lower; and when the subdominant is compounded by having the top of the dominant, its specific effect is considerably higher. In the octave scale the notes of the subdominant and dominant chords are placed round the notes of the tonic chord in such a way was to give the greatest amount of contrast between their notes and the tonic notes. In the tonic chord the note which has the greatest amount of specific gravity is its root; and in the octave scale it has below it the middle and above it the top of the dominant, the two notes which have the greatest amount of specific levity; and in the octave scale it has above it the middle and below it the root of the subdominant - the two notes which the greatest amount of specific gravity. The third note of the scale, the middle of the tonic chord, is the center of the system, and is the note which has the least tendency either upwards or downwards, and it has above it the root of the subdominant, the note which has the greatest amount of specific gravity, and it has below it the top of the dominant, the note which has the greatest amount of specific levity. Thus the root of the subdominant is placed above, and the top of the dominant below, the center of the system; the specific gravity of the one above and the specific levity of the one below cause them to move in the direction of the center. [Scientific Basis and Build of Music, page 98]
There are seven differential and eleven proximate periods all differing in their degrees of complexity according to the individual character of the ratio; and they illustrate to the eye what is the effect in the ear of the same ratios in the rapid region of the elastic vibrations which cause the musical sounds. [Scientific Basis and Build of Music,page 106]
When Ramsay gave a course of lectures in Glasgow, setting forth "What constitutes the Science of Music," his lecture-room was hung round with great diagrams illustrating in various ways his findings; an ocular demonstration was also given of the system of musical vibrations by his favorite illustration, the oscillations of the Silent Harp of Pendulums. A celebrated teacher of music in the city came to Mr. Ramsay's opening lecture, and at the close remained to examine the diagrams, and question the lecturer, especially on his extension of the harmonics to six octaves. Having seen and heard, this teacher went and shortly after published it without any acknowledgment of the true authorship; and it was afterwards republished in some of the Sol-Fa publications, the true source unconfessed; but our plagarist stopped short at C, the top of the tonic, instead of going on to F, the sixth octave of the root of all; the effect of this was to destroy the unity of the great chord. The 22 notes instead of 25, at which this teacher stopped, allowed him, indeed, to show the natural birthplace of B, which Ramsay had pointed, but it beheaded the great complex chord and destroyed its unity. If C, the root of the tonic, be made the highest note, having quite a different character from F, it pronounces its character, and mars the unity of the great chord. Similar diversity of effect is produced by cutting off only two notes of the 25 and stopping short at D, the top of the dominant; and also, though in a weaker degree, by cutting off only one note of the 25 and stopping at E, the middle of the tonic; this, too, disturbs the unity of the fundamental sound. [Scientific Basis and Build of Music, page 111]
dual system, as the strings are shortened the vibrations of course are more, and as the strings are lengthened the vibrations are fewer. This is household lore now; but the new insight and the deeply interesting order of Nature is that the major and the minor contain each other and respond to each other in this striking way; and while manifesting such diversity of character are so essentially one. [Scientific Basis and Build of Music, page 119]
Ralph Waldo Emerson
"Persons with character are as easy to spot as if they were a different color. Self-trust and the perception that virtue is enough is the essence of character. It is the natural tendency to defy falseness and wrong. It speaks the truth, and it is just, generous, hospitable, temperate, despises pettiness, and is scornful of being scorned. Character persists when the mood has passed in which the decision to act was made. Character displays undaunted boldness and a fortitude that does not wear down or out.
"When the soul is not master of one’s reactions to the world, then that soul is everyone’s dupe. The person of character is not for sale. He does not ask to dine nicely and to sleep warm. He does not need plenty; he can lose with grace. Character is persistent. The person of character makes a choice based on honorable considerations and sticks with it and, no matter what, does not weakly try to reconcile itself with the world.
"The person of character knows that he is born into a state of war and his own well-being requires that he should not go dancing for peace. Knowing this, he collects himself and neither defying nor dreading the thunder, he takes both his reputation and his own life in his hand, and, with perfect calm and politeness, dares the hangman and the mob by the absolute truth of his speech, and the correctness of his behavior. Toward all external evil, the person of character affirms his ability to cope single-handedly with an infinite army of enemies. To this military attitude of the soul we give the name of heroism.
"No change of circumstances can repair a defect of character. The heroic character does not accept the conventional opinions and practices. He is a nonconformist. Acquiescence to the establishment indicates lack of character which must see the house built before they can comprehend the plan.
"There is a class of individuals which are endowed with character, heroism, insight and virtue. They are usually received with ill-will by the masses. No one can use common beliefs to understand these characters. They cannot be judged from glimpses. They need perspective, as a landscape. You cannot understand them by popular ethics nor by simple observation of their actions. It is said that He who confronts the gods knows heaven. This is the nature of the person of character.
"The heroic character is a person of truth, master of his own actions, and expresses that mastery in his behavior, not in any manner dependent and servile either on persons, or opinions, or possessions.
"People of character are an energetic class, full of courage and of attempts which intimidate their paler brethren. Being up to the demands of their very nature, they can out pray saints, out general veterans and outshine all courtesy. They are comfortable with pirates and scholars.
"Times of heroism are generally times of terror, but the day never dawns in which this element is without value. Latent inner power is what we call Character, a reserved force which acts directly by presence, and without means. It is conceived of as a certain indemonstrable force, a Familiar of Genius, by whose impulses the hero is guided, but whose counsels he cannot impart. Character is of a stellar and indiminishable greatness." [Ralph Waldo Emerson]