A **number** is a mathematical object used to quantify (count and measure) and to represent quantity, in several forms, of which the most primitive, primary and simplest one is the symbolic signification of a particular, invariable, constant quantity. A notational symbol that represents a **number** is called a numeral but in common use, the word number can mean the abstract object, the symbol, or the word for the **number**. In addition to their use in counting and measuring, numerals are often used for labels (telephone numbers), for ordering (serial numbers), and for codes (e.g., ISBNs). In mathematics, the definition of **number** has been extended over the years to include such numbers as zero, negative numbers, rational numbers, irrational numbers, and complex numbers.

Certain procedures that take one or more numbers as input and produce a number as output are called numerical operations. Unary operations take a single input number and produce a single output number. For example, the successor operation adds one to an integer, thus the successor of 4 is 5. More common are binary operations, which take two input numbers and produce a single output number. Examples of binary operations include addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and exponentiation. The study of numerical operations is called arithmetic. [wikipedia]

The symbols for the digits 1 - 9 were derived from the ancient astrological symbols for the planets.

**Where did numbers come from?**

**R. A. Schwaller de Lubicz**

"Proportion belongs to geometry and harmony, measurement to the object and to arithmetic; and one necessitates the other. Proportion is the comparison of sizes; harmony is the relationship to measures; geometry is the function of **numbers**." [R. A. Schwaller de Lubicz, The Temple in Man, page 61]

"In fact, each of these individual members of the vegetable kingdom belongs to a genus, and this genus to a family; and these families belong to an original "lineage." At the head of this lineage is a Neter, a "Principle" synthesizing all the characteristics of this lineage; its **number**, its rhythm, its classification in the general harmony." [R. A. Schwaller de Lubicz, The Temple in Man, page 63]

"**Number** is the within of all things, the “first form of Brahman.” It is the measure of time and space; it lurks in the heart beat and is blazoned upon the starred canopy of night." [Claude Bragdon (1866-1946), Theosophy and Architecture]

See Also

**Addition**
**Arithmetic**
**atomic number**
**Base 10**
**Base 12**
**Chord**
**Delta**
**Division**
**Figure 3.00 - Infinite Number of Atomoles or Alphanon filling all Space**
**Geometry**
**Indig Numbers**
**Interval**
**law of multiple proportions**
**law of constant composition**
**Law of Definite Proportions**
**mass number**
**Measure**
**Multiplication**
**Music**
**Number**
**Oxidation Number**
**proton number**
**Proportion**
**Propositions of Geometry**
**Quantum Arithmetic**
**Ratio**
**Scientific Notation**
**Stoichiometry**
**Subtraction**
**wave number**
**12.21 - Fibonacci Whole Numbers v Irrational Decimal near Equivalents**