A number is a mathematical object used to quantify (count and measure) and to represent quantity, in several forms, of which the most primitive, primary and simplest one is the symbolic signification of a particular, invariable, constant quantity. A notational symbol that represents a number is called a numeral but in common use, the word number can mean the abstract object, the symbol, or the word for the number. In addition to their use in counting and measuring, numerals are often used for labels (telephone numbers), for ordering (serial numbers), and for codes (e.g., ISBNs). In mathematics, the definition of number has been extended over the years to include such numbers as zero, negative numbers, rational numbers, irrational numbers, and complex numbers.
Certain procedures that take one or more numbers as input and produce a number as output are called numerical operations. Unary operations take a single input number and produce a single output number. For example, the successor operation adds one to an integer, thus the successor of 4 is 5. More common are binary operations, which take two input numbers and produce a single output number. Examples of binary operations include addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and exponentiation. The study of numerical operations is called arithmetic. [wikipedia]
The symbols for the digits 1 - 9 were derived from the ancient astrological symbols for the planets.
Where did numbers come from?
R. A. Schwaller de Lubicz
"Proportion belongs to geometry and harmony, measurement to the object and to arithmetic; and one necessitates the other. Proportion is the comparison of sizes; harmony is the relationship to measures; geometry is the function of numbers." [R. A. Schwaller de Lubicz, The Temple in Man, page 61]
"In fact, each of these individual members of the vegetable kingdom belongs to a genus, and this genus to a family; and these families belong to an original "lineage." At the head of this lineage is a Neter, a "Principle" synthesizing all the characteristics of this lineage; its number, its rhythm, its classification in the general harmony." [R. A. Schwaller de Lubicz, The Temple in Man, page 63]
"Number is the within of all things, the “first form of Brahman.” It is the measure of time and space; it lurks in the heart beat and is blazoned upon the starred canopy of night." [Claude Bragdon (1866-1946), Theosophy and Architecture]
Figure 3.00 - Infinite Number of Atomoles or Alphanon filling all Space
law of multiple proportions
law of constant composition
Law of Definite Proportions
Propositions of Geometry
12.21 - Fibonacci Whole Numbers v Irrational Decimal near Equivalents