The following is a brief explanation of the complete cycle of motion which will explain what Dirac found, what he has not yet found and what he and Lodge and others say they do not understand regarding that which he has found.
The electron is a doubly charged mass. The action of integrating any mass is a generative or condensive one which is called the attraction of gravitation. This causes mass to appear around a common centre of high compression pressure and gives rise to the commonly believed error that matter attracts matter, which is not true to nature. The reaction to this action of compression is the expansion of the field which has been rendered vacuous by thus being drawn upon by the gravitative, indrawing, endothermic action of condensation. The expansion of the residual volume, or field surrounding the mass, is a vacuity which is as equally minus the original equilibrium of the total volume as the centre of the mass is plus that equilibrium.
The "hole" that Dirac describes is the vacuous force of the expansion stroke of the universal pump. This force is correctly described as negative electricity, negative discharge, radiation, radio-activity or by any other name which results in the disappearance of mass into its surrounding tenuous field.
These two opposing actions and reactions constitute the electro-magnetic oscillations, or compression-expansion sequences, which are present in every mass and which constitute the mechanistic or life principle of the universe. These sequences have a periodicity of preponderances which are first preponderantly generative and then preponderantly degenerative, which we know of as the phenomena of growth.
We have now completed the cycle of appearance and disappearance of mass through the series of endothermic, inbreathing, positive oscillations of compression pressure and exothermic, outbreathing, negative oscillations of expansion pressure which is the dual characteristic of electricity; but we have one more characteristic of nature as a result of these action and reaction sequences.
This characteristic attribute of nature to repeat herself, and to do so in waves or striations of periodicities, is because of the dual character of force to express itself always in equal opposition of force.
Every effect of motion thus results in the production of the opposite effect, therefore the negative reaction which results in the disappearance of the electron is accompanied by its equal and opposite action which causes the reappearance of the mass by the reverse action of the "hole".
Hence there can be no such thing as a positively charged mass or a negatively charged mass. All charging masses are simultaneously discharging and all discharging masses are simultaneously recharging other masses in this two-way universe of motion. Energy is kept continually moving between the high pressure hot points of gravitative centres and the low-pressure cold areas of the evacuated fields which surround all masses.
While in search of this ever-moving position the work of the universe, and of man, is performed. There is no other way that work can be performed than by the oscillations of this dually acting electric force as it surges back and forth between the two polar dead centres of force, the gravitative focus and the vacuous focus.
It matters not whether this two-way interchange of potential is between the poles of a battery, which we call electric current, or between dynamos or solenoids, which we call lines of force, or between the high and low barometric pressure position of the weather map, which we call winds, or between the sun and planets, which we call radiant energy, or between elements, which we call radio-activity - all are the same. All are seeking an ever-changing equilibrium position and kept continually on the go and producing that thing which we call energy.
Every mass in the universe is a complete pump oscillating between two equilibrium dead centres of opposed force. Every two masses are reciprocating, collaborating and coordinating their respective energies, each in accordance with its respective and comparative potential. Each mass in the universe is revolving around every other mass in elliptical orbits determined by their mutual ever-moving compression and expansion foci.
All masses, whether electrons in hot suns or electrons in cold space, are simultaneously integrating by their generative oscillation, and disintegrative by their opposed radiative one. This is the completed cycle of the motion of force toward which Dirac has made a step in the right direction." [Russell to NYT - 1930 November 2]
appearance of mass Carnot Cycle cycle cycle of appearance and disappearance of mass Cycle of Temperature Death disappearance of mass Dynaspheric Force heart heart beat heart pulsation heartbeat piston Law of Assimilation Law of Cycles Law of Cycles - See Also Life life-death cycle Motion Motion Cycle one cycle for each action Part 27 - The Cycles of Life Rhythmic Balanced Interchange Self Mastery and Fate with the Cycles of Life Universal Heart Beat wave cycle wave cycle - See Also 5.8.5 - The complete Contraction Expansion Cycle is as follows 8.23 - Law of Cycles