Sir Isaac Newton PRS (4 January 1643 - 31 March 1727 OS: 25 December 1642 - 20 March 1727) was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, alchemist, and theologian, and is considered by many scholars and members of the general public to be one of the most influential people in human history. His PhilosophiÃ¦ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Latin for "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy"; usually called the Principia), published in 1687, is one of the most important scientific books ever written. It lays the groundwork for most of classical mechanics. In this work, Newton described universal gravitation and the three laws of motion, which dominated the scientific view of the physical universe for the next three centuries. Newton showed that the motions of objects on Earth and of celestial bodies are governed by the same set of natural laws, by demonstrating the consistency between Kepler's laws of planetary motion and his theory of gravitation; thus removing the last doubts about heliocentrism and advancing the Scientific Revolution.
Newton built the first practical reflecting telescope and developed a theory of color based on the observation that a prism decomposes white light into the many colours that form the visible spectrum. He also formulated an empirical law of cooling and studied the speed of sound.
In mathematics, Newton shares the credit with Gottfried Leibniz for the development of differential and integral calculus. He also demonstrated the generalised binomial theorem, developed Newton's method for approximating the roots of a function, and contributed to the study of power series.
Newton was also highly religious. He was an unorthodox Christian, and during his lifetime actually wrote more on Biblical hermeneutics and occult studies than on science and mathematics, the subjects he is mainly associated with. (wikipedia)
Isaac Newton, as President of the Royal Society, did much to obscure Robert Hooke, including, it is said, destroying (or failing to preserve) the only known portrait of the man.Wikipedia, Robert Hooke
Isaac Newton, like Albert Einstein, is a quintessential symbol of the human intellect and its ability to decode the secrets of nature. Newton's fundamental contributions to science include the quantification of gravitational attraction, the discovery that white light is actually a mixture of immutable spectral colors, and the formulation of the calculus. Yet there is another, more mysterious side to Newton that is imperfectly known, a realm of activity that spanned some thirty years of his life, although he kept it largely hidden from his contemporaries and colleagues. We refer to Newton's involvement in the discipline of alchemy, or as it was often called in seventeenth-century England, "chymistry." Newton wrote and transcribed about a million words on the subject of alchemy. Newton's alchemical manuscripts include a rich and diverse set of document types, including laboratory notebooks, indices of alchemical substances, and Newton's transcriptions from other sources.
Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) for example is widely recognized as one of the most influential scientists of all time. He discovered gravity and the laws of motion that form the foundation much of modern physics. Newton was deeply convinced that nature provides overwhelming scientific proof of God. His book ‘Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy‘ laid the foundations for classical mechanics. Appended to this book, Newton wrote an essay called ‘The General Scholium’, in which he stated:
‘This most beautiful system of the sun, planets, and comets, could only proceed from the counsel and dominion of an intelligent being. And if the fixed Stars are the centers of other like systems, these, being formed by the like wise counsel, must all be subject to the dominion of One. … This Being Governs all things, not as the soul of the world, but as Lord over all.’
"Fichte writes: "The will is the living principle of the world of spirit as motion is of the world of sense." Newton said that this subtle ether interpenetrates all matter and is concealed in their substance, through the strength and activity of which, bodies attract each other and adhere together when brought in contact, annihilating distance, as if objects might touch each other. Through this "life spirit" light also flows, is refracted and reflected and bodies are warmed. Pythagoras viewed this as a divine luminous principle or substance which permeates all things and at the same time contains all things. They called it the astral light. The Germans call it the "Welgeist". [JOHN ERNST WORRELL KEELY]
Goethe’s commentary on Newton
“It may be boldly asked where can the man be found, possessing the extraordinary gifts of Newton, who could suffer himself to be deluded by such a hocus-pocus, if he had not in the first instance willfully deceived himself; Only those who know the strength of self-deception, and the extent to which it sometimes trenches on dishonesty, are in a condition to explain the conduct of Newton and of Newton’s school. To support his unnatural theory Newton heaps fiction upon fiction, seeking to dazzle where he cannot convince. In whatever way or manner may have occurred this business, I must still say that I curse this modern history theory of Cosmology, and hope that perchance there may appear, in due time, some young scientists of genius, who will pick up courage enough to upset this universally disseminated delirium of lunatics.”
“Someday someone will write a pathology of experimental physics and bring to light all those swindles which subvert our reason, beguile our judgement and, what is worse, stand in the way of any practical progress. The phenomena must be freed once and for all from their grim torture chamber of empiricism, mechanism, and dogmatism; they must be brought before the jury of man’s common sense.” [Johann Wolfgang von Goethe]