Plants give up secret of splitting water
Washington - Researchers said on Thursday they had taken another step toward understanding how plants split water into hydrogen and oxygen atoms - which may provide a cheap way to produce clean-burning hydrogen fuel.
Producing hydrogen from water is the stuff of science fiction - and some comments by US President George Bush. But the team at Imperial College London and Japan Science and Technology Corp. in Yokohama said they had taken the best pictures yet of the plant structures that do it every day.
They used high-resolution x-ray crystallography to make an image of the tiny atomic splitter that separates the two hydrogen atoms from an oxygen atom in a water molecule.
"Results by other groups, including those obtained using lower resolution x-ray crystallography at 3.7 angstroms have shown that the splitting of water occurs at a catalytic center that consists of four manganese atoms," said So Iwata of Imperial's Department of Biological Sciences.
'Together this arrangement gives strong hints about the water-splitting chemistry' "We've taken this further by showing that three of the manganese atoms, a calcium atom and four oxygen atoms form a cube-like structure, which brings stability to the catalytic center," Iwata added in a statement.
"Together this arrangement gives strong hints about the water-splitting chemistry."
Writing in the journal Science, Iwata and colleagues said they looked at a plant bacterium called Thermosynechococcus elongatus. "Without photosynthesis life on Earth would not exist as we know it," Jim Barber of Imperial's Department of Biological Sciences said in a statement.
"Oxygen derived from this process is part of the air we breathe and maintains the ozone layer needed to protect us from ultraviolet radiation.
"Now hydrogen also contained in water could be one of the most promising energy sources for the future. Unlike fossil fuels it's highly efficient, low-polluting and is mobile so it can be used for power generation in remote regions where it's difficult to access electricity."
Water has always seemed a logical source for hydrogen but the only known feasible method to separate it, electrolysis, costs ten times as much as natural gas, and is three times as expensive as gasoline, Barber said. http://www.iol.co.za/index.php?click_id=31&art_id=qw1076044871107B252&set_id=1
1.2 - Molecular Brain Permeated by Interetheric Mind
13.09 - Sphere Rotated by Vibrations
14.15 - Movement Caused by Spirit
15.02 - Liberating Ozone from Water
15.04 - Dissociating Water with Fire
15.06 - Power of Dissociated Water
15.07 - Dissociating Process
15.08 - Dissociating Water with X-Rays - Radiolysis
15.09 - Dissociating Water with Ultrasonic Vibration - Puharich
15.10 - Dissociating Water with Alternating Current - Puharich
15.11 - Dissociating Water with Vacuum
15.12 - Dissociating Water with Acoustic Cavitation
15.13 - Dissociating Water Acoustically - Liberation of Quantum Constituents
15.16 - Controlling Ether by Will Force
15.18 - Keelys Process for Liberating Ether from Water
15.21 - Water Dissociation Demonstration
15.22 - Water is Sensitive to Thought
15.23 - Water is Predominantly Diamagnetic
15.24 - Water is Sensitive to Biometeorological Effects
16.25 - Magnetic Attraction caused by Dominant Current of Electrical Stream
17.02 - Gravity Defined by Keely
17.06 - Gravity Defined by Cayce
17.07 - Gravity Discussed by Herchel
18.10 - Body Motivated by Mind Force
18.12 - Body Motivated by Will Force
8.8 - Water Wave Model
Dissociating Water with Microwave
Faith by Science - The Dawn of a New Order of Things
Figure 15.00a - Fujiwara Water Before Prayer
Figure 15.00b - Fujiwara Water After Prayer
Figure 18.15 - From One Still Mind comes all Force and Motion by Differentiation
Figure 6.18 - Sphere Circumscribed by Cube
Keely Supported by Eminent Men of Science
Part 15 - Dissociating Water
Pressure produced by Vibration
Quimby - Lecture Notes Book VI
Quimby on Spirit Communication
SVP Cosmology Part 15 - Dissociating Water Acoustically
Water Has Memory
Water in the Body