This article has been extensively investigated here: Polar Interchange - Table of Contents
Resistance, Repetitiveness, and the Curvature of Space
All direction is curved. All motion is spiral. Resistance to motion is the cause of curvature of space. Resistance to motion is the cause of Nature's second greatest characteristic attribute, repetitiveness. Opposition is the first, but both are simultaneous. Nature desires action but demands an equilibrium. Action can only be obtained through opposition. With an expression in Nature of the desire for action, force is born. Resistance to action divides the one force of action into two, one of which is genero-active and the other radio-active. These two forces proceed in two directions.
One force proceeds inward to create a plus equilibrium condition which we call condensation, to accumulate the energy of force into a gradient of increasingly higher pressure and smaller volume. The effect of this force is to create a minus equilibrium gradient of lowering pressure in the surrounding environment. This force centers itself in harmonic vortices of energy waves and expresses itself by pulling inward from within toward those centers to form solids. These vortical centers are the gravitative centers toward which force is attracted into increasing potential.
The other force thrusts outward from within to create a balancing minus equilibrium condition which we call radiation. The effect of this force is to attempt to restore the evacuated space to equilibrium by redistributing the accumulated energy back to where it came from. Nature does not succeed in this attempt, however, for if it could do so all motion would cease.
The action which causes one solid to form into systems causes other systems of solids to form. Between these consecutive systems of solids, and each unit of each system, there is a zero plane or area culminating in a point of maximum low pressure where radiation ends, but is carried across by the impetus of its force, and begins again on the other side as the opposite force. This is the universal mechanistic dead center of force where the centrifugal thrust of radiation ends and the centripetal pull of generation begins.
The other dead center of force is at the high pressure point of gravitative centers where the step-up contractive pull of the genero-active pressure force ends and the step-down expansive thrust of radio-active degenerative force begins. It will thus be seen that motion is continuous between high and low pressure points and low pressure areas throughout the universe. There is no cessation and no stopping, no unbalance, no distortion and no disorderliness. It will also be clearly seen that Nature's mechanics are exactly the same as man's mechanics. The thrust and pull of expansion and contraction between high pressure and low pressure equilibrium points is the only method by means of which man or Nature can express energy and perform work.
The weather map is a good example of the exchange of force due to the polarization of sections of the planet. Each low and high pressure point of atmospheric pressure is an extension of the earth's magnetic poles and these, in their turn, are extensions of every other bipolar mass in this system, of which the sun is the control, and of every other mass in the universe. The winds which rush frantically from one dead center to another with an enormous potential for work, or the gentle breezes which take their time about it, and which have little desire or capacity for work, are complete examples of Nature's plan of polarization to produce motion. Whirling cosmic pinwheels (galaxies) in the heavens which contain giant suns, and their systems, are larger, but otherwise there is no difference in principle nor in effect.
The maximum of working high potential in any mass is developed when opposition is at its maximum in poles concentrated to points of disappearance in its axis of rotation. This is the amplitude position of the wave to which the then spherical mass of concentrated volume belongs. In this position the axis of rotation of the mass is 90 degrees from its plane of birth on the axis of its wave.
The minimum of working potential in any mass is in the plane of the waveâ€™s axis, where polarization is widely decentrated over the then very oblate, very tenuous and indefinite mass of expanded volume.
The poles of the universe are expansion and compression pumps which pump a plus equilibrium into mass at the expense of its spatial environment, which is then the minus equilibrium. Motion cannot begin until the One Force thus expresses its desire to divide into the appearance of two. Motion necessarily ends when this opposed desire becomes satisfied with its effort and the two forces unite again as an equilibrium. This pumping process is the driving force of Nature's one universal machine in which all of its big and little wheels are geared together.
Science is well aware of the demonstrated fact of electrical practice, that no current can flow until both positive and negative electrodes are connected in such a manner as to complete a circuit. Until this is done no energy is developed, no work can be performed and no "charged" condition can be developed. In the face of this most evident and most obvious of Nature's mechanical principles, science presumes mass to be separately "charged" by either of the two separate "charges." Negative electrons supposedly surround positive protons in concentric shells and, by their number, the division into different substances is determined. These negative electrons jump from one concentric shell to another in an extraordinary manner which has no precedent in Nature, nor in electrical practice. They supposedly neutralize the positive protons in a manner which also has no precedent in Nature nor in electrical practice.
Nature has but few motives for her complex patterns all of which are visible in the heavens. Nature is repetitive. She uses her motives over and over again in repetitive periodicities in little mass and big mass, in low octaves and high octaves. The atom models of today's thinking are as far removed from truth as the Arthurian concept of a flat world upheld by elephants and tortoises. Sir Ernest Rutherford was aiming in the right direction with one of the two doors of truth opened to him, when Nature's principles were discarded by other thinkers and pure fantasy substituted. Ernest Rutherford theory was abandoned because it was mathematically incredible that electrons could revolve around a central nucleus without an attendant collapse of the entire universe. The reason given for such a collapse is that the electrons would radiate all of their energy and eventually fall into their nucleus. This is exactly what does eventually happen to every atom and to every solar system when they have run their cycles, but, as the process is a continuous one, and is delayed by a lesser generative process going on at the same time in each planet there is no possibility of collapse. That process is going on in our solar system without any evidence of collapse, but, on the contrary, there is strong evidence of the sun's preparation for the birth of a new planet.
The difference between an atom and a solar system is only a dimensional one. Electrons there are, and protons also if you like, but corpuscles they all are, for they are all as alike as our sun and our planets are alike. They differ in their preponderance as their polarization either decentrates or concentrates. Electrons, manufactured at the cathode by the, polarization of its environment, change their preponderance many times during the one ten thousandth of a second in which they act as pulsing condensers to pick up messages.
It should be perfectly clear that the sun could not be a "proton" if it radiates. It should also be clear that the planets could not be electrons, if they are capable of generation by impact of the charge of the sun's discharge. It should be very clear that an admittedly polarized mass like this planet must be a solenoid, equatorially wound, and hence could not be "charged" with either positive or negative "charges" alone.
It should also be clear that this planet and its winding, and its satellite with its separate winding, and its orbital area with its separate but larger winding, are, collectively, one unit of a series of concentric solenoidal bi-polarized units which constitute this step-up, step-down transformer of energy from low to high voltage, and back again, which we call our solar system. This solar system is as definite a whirlpool of motion as a striation in an evacuated tube, or a loop of force in an electric current, is a whirlpool of motion.
It should also be perfectly clear, by studying a storage battery, that the motion of force which performs work will in no way function until the one equilibrium force within that battery is pumped into an apparently divided state of two opposed forces. It should be clear that when such a divided state is effected, there is a difference of pressures as definite as the high pressure within a planet and the low pressure of space, or as the opposed pressures which we see on the weather map.
It will also he clear that the spiral areas of high pressure which correspond to the wires in a solenoid must be separated by fields of flux in Nature's solenoids. At the equilibrium positions in the cores of Nature's solenoids, the suns, planets, satellites and electrons of all systems find their orbital lanes. All orbital lanes are coincidental with gravitative centers, and all gravitative centers are coincidental with the equilibrium position which lies somewhere within every polarized mass, not necessarily at its center. Nebulae, for example, are polarized, and their gravitative centers are seldom anywhere near their centers as we shall more particularly show in another thesis.
A cross section drawn through solenoidal turns will reveal striations of alternate high and low pressure, or a mass "falling" or "rising" through them will cut across them. The Heaviside layers around the earth and the loops of force around a wire correspond to these striations. Striations are one of Nature's strongest characteristics which will have to be discussed in a separate paper.
At one of these dead center positions, Electricity changes its costume behind the wings and comes back on the stage of force and motion with all the attributes of magnetism. It is the same force exactly. It has merely put on a repellent costume instead of an attractive one and begun to breathe out instead of in. Instead of an endothermic intent of heat absorption, it has become exothermic in nature. Expansion into invisibility has taken the place of contraction into visibility. Invisibility does not mean nothingness, it means that formerly visible solids have expanded to a tenuous state beyond our perception. Disappearance is only a fleeting effect for at the zero point of expansion reappearance begins again. At this other dead center position, magnetism gets back into its attractive costume and begins its new role as a regeneration of its degeneracy in another winding up of the cosmic clock.
There is, therefore, but One Force in the universe which expresses itself in two opposite swings of the cosmic pendulum through the medium of polarization. It has been stated that Nature desired opposition but demanded equilibrium. We are now going to consider Nature's method of trying to enforce its demand for an equilibrium, through resistance to motion. Resistance is the cause of repetitiveness in all effects of motion. Through resistance to one impulse of force the opposite impulse is born. Resistance is the cause of curvature of space and curvature of space is the mirror which reflects simplicity into complexity. The rotation of every mass upon its axis, the revolution of every mass around the nucleus of its system, the evolution of magnetic poles and oblateness is due to resistance.
Resistance is the cause of that apparent division of the One Force into the appearance of two forces, in that expression of force which we call sex. Force, motion and sex are the creative trinity.
Sex is the motive power behind force and motion.
Let us trace the action of force, motion and resistance. An electric action takes place in space which expresses itself in pulling inward from within toward a nuclear center.
The direction of the thrust of resistance to the positive or plus action, and an equal thrust of resistance to its negative or minus reaction to that action is shown in Figure 6 by the arrows. The result of the thrust in each instance is to deflect the intended direction from a direct or straight line to a curved or spiral line which we know as the wave. Along the sequences of waves so formed all of the systems within which matter is formed are centered. The wave is the basis of all motion. The atom is constructed along the wave. Systems and striations of atomic, solar and galaxial systems are strung along waves in the manner briefly described herein and in accordance with one law for all. This subject will be treated in greater detail in another article in which chemical action, atomic structure and wave mechanics will be stressed.
Having considered the effect of the thrust of resistance which deflects the contraction of a straight line into a wave, let us now illustrate the effect of resistance on a mass within a wave. To make this clear, the reader must refer again to Figure 3 and Figure 4 which indicate the directions of pull and thrust as toward and away from a common center. If Nature allowed the inward contraction of a force at A in Figure 7 to exert itself in a straight line to B, no mass in Nature would rotate on its axis.
Nature does not allow such a happening, but deflects the action of electro-gravitational pull from a center of force an as indicated in Figure 7 so that all potential accumulating on a mass is pulled toward it tangentially, and all dissipating potential is thrust from it tangentially. Position B, therefore, does not pull directly at A in a straight line but from the closed center of a spiral, each point of which is deflected by resistance into a continuous spiral orbit pressure gradient as shown in Figure 8.
It will, therefore, be seen that motion, which is the expression of force, cannot take the route of the shortest distance between two points because of the deflection of resistance. It must always take a curved route, its curvature always determined by the density of the intervening potential. The greater the density of matter the greater it resists penetration by any material body, therefore the greater the curvature of deflection. It should also be plainly seen that the tangential pull of generative force acts as a brake to decelerate rotation, while the thrust of radiation acts as a force to accelerate it.
It necessarily follows that the higher a potential the slower the rotation, such as we find on Mercury in the high pressure gradient of this system. Conversely, the lower the potential, the faster the rotation, such as we find on Jupiter and Saturn out in the low pressure gradient of the system.
In accordance with the law of opposite actions for opposite effects, which follows on page 15, the revolution of planets around their nucleal sun is accelerated by the greater pull of drag of the whirling vortex in high pressure positions while out in the low pressure gradient revolution is very slow because of the very little pull. Mercury revolves around the sun in 88 days, this earth in 365 days, while Neptune makes the journey in 165 years. The pull and thrust of the opposed forces exerted in the solar vortex, or in the vortex of the Milky Way (galaxy), or in an atomic system, is the sole cause for the revolution of masses around their primaries, and, for the rotation of masses around their own axes, and their speed in each instance is entirely due to their potential positions. The law for one is the law for all.
This much talked of "initial impetus" of masses which no one accounts for other than through some cosmic cataclysm is reasonably accounted for by the loops of force which cause vortices of whirling striations to form in the field of any solenoid. This matter might have been settled long ago if science did not so implicitly believe that Electricity and gravitation were unrelated effects.
All direction of motion must be curved; the curvature of space must be spiral; positive charge and negative discharge pass each other on the inward and outward directions of the spiral at 180 degrees; magnetic poles must change as potentials change; and resistance exerts its force with varying intensity in the pressure gradient of a wave which has a maximum pressure at trough and crest at 90 degrees to the axis of the wave. If positive charge and negative discharge pass each other, going in opposite directions, it is not logical to say that "opposite charges attract." Herein follows the law which not only accords with observed facts, but is also logical.
Positive charge attracts positive charge.
Negative discharge repels both negative discharge and positive charge.
Every mass in the universe must rotate upon its axis due to the centripetal effect of tangential pull and centrifugal effect of tangential thrust. Every mass must be the nuclear center of a spiral vortex which corresponds exactly in its effect to a solenoid. Lesser masses which form in lesser vortices within greater masses, such as atomic systems or electrons within solids, or such as planets in solar systems and satellites in planetary vortices, must have their own gravitative centers toward which potential accumulates and away from which potential dissipates. Conductivity lessens as pressure lowers in surrounding environment and inductivity increases as pressures are stepped up in the closing spiral. If these statements are well founded, it necessarily follows that the environment surrounding any mass must act as an insulating medium to protect as far as possible its accumulated potential from dissipation into space or from absorption by other masses.
If this is true, the thrust of dissipating potential from any two masses must act as a repellent force to hold them apart as far as their respective potentials will allow. Between every two masses there must, therefore, be a plane, or area, of maximum low pressure culminating in a point which acts as a limit of expansion to the radiation of both masses. This low pressure point must be an equilibrium or dead center of force, at which position there is no motion other than the impetus of approaching radiation and departing regeneration.
As radiation is carried beyond this equilibrium low pressure plane it must necessarily be caught in the generative centripetal lanes of the next vortex. This would reverse the expanding negative discharge to contracting positive charge. This is Nature's process of exchanging potential. As high potential masses such as our sun draw the energy away from masses of lower potential such as our planet it thrusts it farther and farther away from it. Conversely, as our planet is recharged by the impact of the sun's regenerated radiation, it resists the repellent thrust in accordance with its ability to absorb potential. Thus we have the effect of repulsion and also the effect of attraction in every mass.
If it is true that every mass has both the power to attract as well as to repel, which it necessarily must have if it both charges and discharges, should not the Newtonian laws of gravitation be rewritten as follows:1
Every mass has the relative apparent ability to attract and to repel every other mass, its relative ability depending on its relative potential.
Every body attracts and repels every other body with a force which increases and decreases in the universal ratios in accordance with its potential position and according to whether the direction of the mass is centripetal or centrifugal.
If the above laws and observations are in accordance with Nature's principles, should not the following laws be recorded for man's use?
In any mass, its content of centripetal force is its content of power to attract.
In any mass its content of centrifugal force is its content of power to repel.
High potential is generated from low potential against an accumulating pressure resistance equal, in inverse ratio, to the cube of the equilibrium pressure of the low potential, and is degenerated with equal pressure assistance in direct ratio.
All motion begins in the plus, contractive, endothermic impulse of generation, and ends in the succeeding minus, expansive, exothermic impulse of degeneration.
The degeneration of any mass is exactly balanced by the regeneration of another mass.
The greater the positive charge, the greater the pressure of contraction.
The greater the pressure of contraction, the less the volume.
The greater the negative discharge, the greater the pressure of expansion.
The greater the pressure of expansion the less the volume.
Every pressure develops an exactly equal and opposite resisting pressure.
In every mass, the attraction of the accumulating pressure and the repulsion of the distributing pressure exert their forces in opposite directions.
All mass is generated by accumulation of the universal content of energy into higher potential.
That which is generated must be radiated.
All mass is regenerated by absorption of the impacting radio(al)-active energy of all other mass.
All mass is degenerated by its own radiation.
All idea is repetitive and no effect of motion once started ever ends.
No state of motion ever began or ever ended.
All mass is both electric and magnetic.
All mass simultaneously expresses both opposites of all effects of motion, and each opposite is cumulatively preponderant in cycles.
All mass is simultaneously electric and magnetic, but preponderantly one or the other cumulatively in endless repetitive cycles.
All mass simultaneously revolves and rotates though one effect is always preponderant and the other one is preparing for its right of preponderance.
All opposite effects of motion are simultaneous in the expression of their sex opposition but preponderant in sequence in each sex expression.
All electromagnetic mass forms into systems of units which revolve in spiral orbits both centripetally toward and centrifugally away from nuclear centers.
All preponderantly charging systems are positive systems.
All preponderantly discharging systems are negative systems.
All preponderantly contracting systems are positive systems.
All preponderantly expanding systems are negative systems.
All systems whose spirals are preponderantly closing spirals are positive systems.
All systems whose spirals are preponderantly opening systems are negative systems.
All systems of preponderantly lessening volume are positive systems.
All systems of preponderantly increasing volume are negative systems.
All systems of preponderantly increasing potential are positive systems.
All systems of preponderantly lowering potential are negative systems.
All preponderantly integrating systems are positive systems.
All preponderantly disintegrating systems are negative systems.
All preponderantly generating systems are positive systems.
All preponderantly radiating systems are negative systems.
All preponderantly heating systems are positive systems.
All preponderantly cooling systems are negative systems.
Electricity attracts, magnetism repels. Electricity and magnetism move in opposite directions, their departure from each other being 180 degrees.
Electric lines of force approach each other at 180 degrees.
Magnetic lines of force depart from the line of direction of electric force and also of magnetic force at 180 degrees.
Electric energy reproduces itself by induction and dissipates itself by conduction at an angle of 90 degrees to the lines of direction of induction and conduction.
All mass is potential out of place, and all mass is constantly changing potential.
Positive charge attracts positive charge. Its sole office is to attract. 2
Negative discharge repels both negative discharge and positive charge. Its sole office is to repel. 2
The union of an action with its reaction is always followed by the reproduction of separate actions and reactions.
All mass is generated and regenerated by a contractive pressure exerted in the direction of its gravitative center. Its minimum of generative pressure is exerted from its equatorial plane and its maximum pressure from its poles.
All mass is radiated and diffused by an expansive pressure exerted in the direction of its surface. Its minimum of radiative pressure is exerted from its poles and its maximum from its equatorial plane.
The generation of all energy is accomplished only through the resistance exerted against the direction of the force of any established motion.
Every expression of motion has its equal and opposite expression.
There can be no increase or decrease in any effect of motion without a balancing increase or decrease in its opposite effect.
The power to attract and to repel lessens as volume increases and grows greater as volume decreases.
The relative ability of a substance to attract and to repel is in the same ratio as the increase or decrease of the opposing pressures and other dimensions which determine the potential of a charging or discharging system. (See Reciprocating Proportionality
In any mass the apparent ability to attract increases with increase of positive charge and decrease of volume; also the apparent ability to repel increases with increase of negative discharge and decrease of volume.
The greater the resistance the greater the generation of power and the less its dissipation in speed.
The less the resistance the less the generation of power and the greater its dissipation in speed.
The greater the resistance to an action of force the greater the genero-activity.
The greater the genero-activity the greater the power of mass to absorb heat.
The less the resistance to the reaction of force, the greater the radio-activity.
The greater the radio-activity the greater the power of mass to give out its heat.
Radiating and radiated bodies seek equilibrium positions in lower pressure zones appropriate to their lowered potentials.
Expanding bodies seek lower pressure equilibriums.
Contracting bodies seek higher pressure equilibriums.
An action calculated to displace is simultaneously accompanied by a reaction to replace.
All gravitational and radiational expressions are simultaneous in their opposition.
All effects of rotation are simultaneously opposed, but their repetitive acts are sequential.
Contracting, generating bodies decelerate the speed of rotation of inner planets by proximity.
Deceleration of rotation of the planets of a system increases the surface tension pressure of a system.
The greater the deceleration of rotation, the greater the centripetal force of contraction pressure.
(See Ether as an attractive element.)
Acceleration of rotation of the planets of a system decreases the surface tension pressure of a system.