A Critical Review of the Available Information Regarding Claims of Zero-Point Energy, Free-Energy, and Over-Unity Experiments and Devices
Patrick G. Bailey
P.O. Box 201
Los Altos, CA 94023-0201
760 Prairie Avenue
Craig, CO 81625-1346
A summary review is presented of the experiments, motors, generators, devices, and demonstrations that have been reported in the past few years to produce near-unity or over-unity operation. The concepts of free energy, zero-point energy, and overunity devices are not new, and many examples of such devices have been built within the last 100 years. 26 researchers are reviewed and 11 are selected for immediate interest and support. Whether a new form of potential energy can be demonstrated and successfully utilized within the near future for the ultimate benefit of the human race remains to be seen.
'Energy' cannot be created nor destroyed - it exists throughout space and within matter. 'Perpetual Motion' does not exist - long lasting motion is easily observable, such as planetary orbits. 'Stupidity' is not hereditary - and it is not a survival trait.
'Zero-Point Energy' (ZPE) is known as an energy that fills the fabric of all space. Technically the ZPE results from an electric flux that flows orthogonally to our perceived dimension or reality. The mass equivalence of this energy has been calculated by physicists to be on the order of 1093 gms/cm3. Henry T. Moray, Walter Russell, and Nikola Tesla described the nature of the ZPE and designed and built equipment to engineer its properties. It may be possible to build devices to cohere this energy. This would result in a non-polluting, unlimited supply of virtually free energy.
'Free Energy' is a term that can have two meanings: either the additional energy that can be obtained from a device at little or no additional cost, so the additional energy is essentially free; or more output energy that appears to be available than input energy, such as in the case of detonating an atomic bomb.
'Over-unity Devices' are those systems which appear to produce more energy than they use. In analyzing such systems, a box is drawn around the device and energy balances are formulated to measure the amounts of energy coming into and out of that box. Whether or not the device is termed an 'overunity' device will depend upon the size of the box. When the box is drawn large enough, all systems or devices will have a net energy transfer of zero. On the other hand, when the box is drawn just small enough, the device can be said to be an 'overunity' device, and an intelligent physicist will know better.
From this point of view, examples of existing so-called free energy devices abound: such as Hoover Dam. So then is any generator, or any nuclear reactor. More energy certainly comes out of a dam than went in to making it (by us, at least). And any dam engineer will tell you that it will produce more energy than it cost to build and that it will last forever (or at least until his kids get out of college). So it is seen that these generators can be thought of as free energy devices, while they are really only energy conversion devices, and obviously not perpetual motion machines. People who insist that they actually are, are either very ignorant or very devious. In such cases, examine the person's true motives. [Another 'free-energy' device of increasingly note-worthy attention is the Federal Reserve, which is not an agency of the US government. (Figgie 1992)]
Sources of Information and Data
Ultimately, the sources for all information in these areas come from the inventors, researchers, or investigators themselves. The US and foreign patent offices provide some information into new developments in these areas, yet the actual patents reveal very little useful information and almost no experimental results. Patent law does not require complete disclosure of all data, and patents are held nationally. An interesting area of big business today is the international transfer of patents at no cost.
Other sources of information and data include papers, reports, books, and conference proceedings. Papers and books that are of special interest are those by Hans Coler (1946), the Gravity Research Group (GRG 1956), Stefan Marinov (1992), Hans Nieper (1984), and Shinichi Seike (1992). Conferences that have been recently held to collect and summarize information in these areas include the 26th and 27th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conferences (1991 and 1992) and the more recent International Symposium on New Energy (ISNE) (April 1993). All of these materials are available from the sources identified in the references section. As a result of a 1993 ISNE working group, the working devices were categorized into four distinct areas: (1) Solid-State Space-Energy Generators, (2) Rotating Space-Energy Machines, (3) Fusion Conversion Devices, and (4) Hydrogen Energy.
Summary of Interesting Theories, Experiments, and Devices
"Some things have to be believed to be seen." 
There are several societies and conferences world-wide that present and sometimes document the results of research in these areas. As this work is not considered as mainstream science within the US, much of the results of these researchers goes by unnoticed. The 26th IECEC (1991) provided a forum for researchers in these areas to voluntarily come forward and present their ideas, theories, and results to the mainstream scientific community. They were met with interest ranging from mistrust to awe, and from feelings ranging from friendship to outright anger. The ranges of these attitudes will likely depend upon the emotional stability of the listeners.
The 26th IECEC created international interest that stimulated further review papers to be published in the later IECECs. A growing group of organizations is networking on a world-wide basis to support and organize this on-going research. Some of these organizations are listed in the references (AREI, AFS, GRI, IASA, INE, ITS, JPI, SEA, TI, and USP). "New Energy News" is the new monthly newsletter of Institute for New Energy (INE), a recently formed US technical society, created in April 1993, that is committed to researching these technical areas. Note that the references include complete and accurate address and cost information, so that serious investigators have no excuse to not investigate.
This review includes all of the information that was made available to the 1991 IECEC, the 1992 IECEC, the 1993 International Symposium on New Energy (ISNE), and other contributed personal source information and documents. Our focus here is on actual data and results - not on ideas or mathematical theories. Our emphasis here is on repeatable experimental evidence - or on the documented testimony of multiple reliable witnesses that have been willing to stand-up, testify, and document a description of what they witnessed. Just because you don't see it doesn't mean that it's not real.
The list of the researchers, experiments, devices, and results that were addressed in this review are listed in Table 1. The reference corresponding to each researcher is also listed. Videotapes were made of all ref. speakers at the 1991 IECEC and the 1993 ISNE.
Possible Misleading Results
"But goodness alone is never enough. A hard, cold wisdom is required for goodness to accomplish good." 
We feel that the interpretation of anyone's results can fall into one of four categories: (1) Lying for attention; (2) Lying for money (funding, stock options, etc.); (3) Inaccurate measurement or misinterpretation of the data or results; and (4) Accurate representation of the physical phenomena. In our reviews, we found absolutely no evidence that any one of the researchers we studied in Table 1 belonged specifically in categories (1) or (2) (although so far as we know three of these researchers have not been able to replicate their initial published results). Frauds are quickly discovered, if encouraged to reproduce their results and to provide detailed information. So, we were left to carefully analyze the results from each researcher and to carefully draw our own conclusions.
Table 1. A Listing of Researchers and their Experiments and/or Devices of Current Interest
|Researcher(s)||Experiments, Devices, and Demonstrations||References|
|Adams, Robert||Adams Pulsed Motor Generator and Replication||Adams 1993|
|Baumann, Paul, et. al.||Methernitha Swiss M-L Converter Device Demonstrations||IECEC 1991|
|Bedini, John||Bedini Free Energy Generator Plans and Demonstrations||IECEC 1991|
|Binder, Timothy||Russell's Nuclear-Magnetic Transmutation Experiments||ISNE 1993|
|Brown, Paul||Nuclear Resonant Generators and Demonstrations||IECEC 1991|
|Coler, Hans||Magnetstromapparat and Stromerzeuger Devices / Demos.||Coler 1946|
|Grotz, Toby||Russell's Power Multiplication Principle Experiments||IECEC 1992, ISNE 1993|
|Hathaway, George||Unipolar Dynamo of Novel Construction Experiments||IECEC 1991, ISNE 1993|
|Hickox, Barbara||Electric Dynamo Patent||IECEC 1991|
|Johnson, Gary||Electrically Induced Explosions in Water Experiments||IECEC 1992|
|Kelly, Don||Electromagnetic Antigravity Drop Tests||ISNE 1993|
|Lambertson, Wingate||WIN Process||IECEC 1991|
|Marinov, Stefan||Venetin Coliu Generator Demonstrations||ISNE 1993|
|McKie, Richard||Power On Demand Module Concept (PODMOD)||IECEC 1991|
|Meyer, Stanley||Water Fuel Cell Demonstrations||ISNE 1993|
|Moray, John and Kevin||T. Henry Moray's Radiant Energy Device||IECEC 1991|
|Muller, William||Muller Motor/Generator||IECEC 1991|
|Newman, Joseph||Magnetic Fields Utilization Energy Machine||Newman 1993|
|dePalma, Bruce||N-Machine Experiments||IECEC 1991|
|Pappas, Panos||Energy Creation in Sparks and Discharges Experiments||IECEC 1991|
|Reed, Troy||Reed Magnetic Motor Experiments||IECEC 1991, ISNE 1993|
|Seike, Shinichi||Negative Energy and Landau Oscillator Experiments||Seike 1992|
|Storms, Edmund||Established Cold Fusion and Reproducible Results||IECEC 1993|
|Sweet, Floyd||Vacuum Triode Assembly Device Demonstrations||IECEC 1991|
|Tewari, Paramahamsa||Space Power Generator Experiments||ISNE 1993|
|Valone, Thomas||Homopolar Generator Experiments||IECEC 1991, ISNE 1993|
While on one hand some researchers may possibly be overstating the capabilities and results of their experiments and devices, on the other hand many so-called 'scientific experts' are very active in discounting all of the research results in these areas without investigating the details of any of them. "The Nobel chemist Irving Langmuir (1881-1957) used to give a cautionary talk on pathological science, and ... told a number of stories of pathological science and listed the features they have in common." (Cromer, Skeptical Inquirer, 1993). In his eight page article, Cromer states that there are many lessons from this: "(1) Scientists themselves are often poor judges of the scientific process; (2) Scientific research is very difficult. Anything that can go wrong will go wrong; (3) Science isn't dependent on the honesty or wisdom of scientists. (4) Real discoveries of phenomena contrary to all previous scientific experience are very rare, while fraud, fakery, foolishness, and error resulting from overenthusiasm and delusion are all too common. Thus, Glashow's closed-minded 'I don't believe a word of it' is going to be correct far more often than not." Cromer also cites Langmuir as saying (Langmuir 1989): "There are cases where there is no dishonesty involved, but where people are tricked into false results by a lack of understanding about what human beings can do to themselves in the way of being led astray by subjective effects, wishful thinking, or threshold interactions. These are examples of pathological science. These are things that attracted a great deal of attention. ... [But] the critics can't reproduce the effects. Only the supporters could do that. In the end, nothing was salvaged. Why should there be? There isn't anything there. There never was."
Our sincere response to you is: If there is no initial interest - then there will be no investigation. If there is no investigation, there will be no research to replicate. Your interest will spark the urge to replicate. If there is interest, research, and no replication, then that fact should be published and disseminated with integrity. If there are witnesses to the results and the results were or are repeatable, then we feel the fault and blame lies with the critic and not with the researcher. Therefore, given the experiments and devices referenced in this paper: Demand that they be tested with an open mind! One success out of all of the failures is more than worth the effort!
Devices of Great Interest
"Grant shook his head. It's been discussed, in the field. Many people imagined it was coming. But not so soon." "Story of our species, Malcolm said laughing. Everybody knows it's coming, but not so soon." 
Table 2. A Listing of Promising Devices of Great Interest with Documented Demonstrations
|Baumann, Paul et. al.||Over-Unity, Rotating, Self-Sustaining|
|Binder, Timothy||Chemical Dependency on E-M|
|Coler, Hans||Gravitational Field Generator|
|Grotz, Toby||Over-Unity, Rotational Generator|
|Kelly, Don||E-M Field Drop Tests & Oscillators|
|Marinov, Stefan||Anti-Lenz Effect Motor/Generator|
|Meyer, Stanley||Energy from Water, H2 Fracturing|
|Moray, John and Kevin||Over-Unity, Self-Sustaining Device|
|Storms, Edmund||Over-Unity Thermal, Cold Fusion|
|Sweet, Floyd||Over-Unity, Steady-Variable Device|
|Tewari, Paramahamsa||Over-Unity Rotational N-Machine|
|Baumann, Paul et. al.||1984+||2||Y||Y||Y||N||N|
|Moray, John and Kevin||1930s||1||Y||Y||Y||N||N|
Yrs - Years the Effects were observed.
Cat - Categories 1 through 4, as defined under 'Sources of Information and Data.'
Doc - Documentation Exists (Yes or No) (Y/N).
MWs - Multiple Witnesses Testimony (Y/N).
RDs - Repeated Demonstrations (Y/N).
Res - Currently Being Researched (Y/N).
Eff - Large Research Effort (Y/N).
The researchers and the works that we feel are worthy of great attention in the near future are those that are listed in Table 2. It should be noted that some researchers have been omitted from Table 2 only because either their work is of a proprietary or confidential nature, or because we could not obtain the required data or documentation from witnesses. Such researchers include: Paul Brown, Bruce dePalma, and the Troy Reed. All of the researchers listed in Table 1 and not listed in Table 2 have provided and we trust will continue to provide important contributions to and documentation of their work. In fact, some of this work may be turn out to be more important than those currently listed in Table 2. However, at the present moment of time as this paper is being written, we considered those devices listed in Table 2 to be of the greatest interest to us.
Summary Information and Data
The Methernitha Swiss M-L Converter developed by Paul Baumann and the Methernitha spiritual community in Switzerland has been repeatedly demonstrated to many scientists upon request (26th IECEC, Nieper 1984, SEA). Its three foot counter-rotating disks and specially designed energy storage system are reported to generate a steady output power of about 3 to 5 kilo-Watts (kW) indefinitely - while sitting on top of a table. A videotape has been produced and its narration has been transcribed.
Tim Binder and his team have replicated the 1927 experiments of Walter Russell and have created fluorine from pure water vapor using complex E-M field arrangements. This work validates Russell's theories about nuclear structure and the proper arrangement of the Periodic Table of the Elements.
Hans Coler demonstrated two major devices to many amazed witnesses and officials in Germany during 1925-1945. A 60 kW device was built in 1937, and the war bombings ended further research in 1944. A complete 32 page report declassified by the British Intelligence Objectives Sub-Committee is available. (Coler 1946, Nieper 1984) The theories expressed are very similar to those presented in a comprehensive report (GRG 1956) (the latest one we could find so far) on electrogravitics systems, interactions of E-M with gravity, or counterbary control devices.
Toby Grotz and his team are planning to replicate the energy experiments of Walter Russell. In the fall of 1959, General Chapman, Colonel Fry, Major Sargent, Major Cripe, and others from NORAD in Colorado Springs, attended a meeting at Swannanoa, Virginia (University Of Science And Philosophy) at the invitation of Walter Russell. At this meeting Russell explained the workings of a device he proposed to build to take advantage of the vacuum state energy, and the two directional movement of energy from gravitation, (generation), to radiation, (degeneration). During the following year Russell, his wife, Lao, and their assistants built the device. The prototype that was built consisted of two sets of dual and magnetically-sexed coils. On September 10, 1961, Walter and Lao Russell reported to their contacts at NORAD, that the coils had worked and that the President of the United States could announce to the world that a "greater, safer power than atomic energy" could be provided for industry and transportation. [see Polar Interchange - Part I]
Don Kelly is the editor of the Space Energy Newsletter (SEA) and has been conducting and reporting results of E-M to gravity drop tests. He finds that energized coil assemblies have a 40% lag in drop time over about five feet. Other related research world-wide verifies that spinning masses appear to lose weight at high rotational speeds.
Stefan Marinov is the editor of Deutsche Physik in Germany and has demonstrated many experiments that confound conventional E-M theory. His recent paper describes devices that create anti-Lenz effects, thus increasing the generator's efficiency.
Stanley Meyer has obtained over 28 patents in both the US and other countries that document his water fuel cell and hydrogen fracturing process technology. He began this work in 1980 and has spent over $1.6 million. Although he has been approached to sell the technology, he says he has no intention to do so and plans to retain control to make sure his invention is brought to the public for the good of mankind. An informative and recommended videotape of his 1993 ISNE presentation is available through the INE.
John and Kevin Moray are pursuing the technology that was repeatedly demonstrated to the press in the 1930s by T. Henry Moray. One device was reported to generate 50 kW for long periods of time by itself.
Edmund Storms has reviewed much of the work done internationally in the so-called area of 'cold fusion' and has documented the results and repeated results of the now world-wide research in this area.
Floyd Sweet demonstrated his vacuum triode device to at least two expert electronics technicians that have documented their observations in sworn affidavits. A videotape was also made during a demonstration. From a nine volt battery starter unit, nearly continuous output powers of 500 W to 50 kW have been reported to be observed. Experimentation is still in progress to further refine the device and to improve its operational capabilities.
Paramahamsa Tewari has been doing experiments with a N-Machine and has reported over-unity operation from instrument readings. He is currently performing new experiments to feed the output of the device back into the input to obtain a 'free-running' condition. Many researchers have performed experiments with these devices, also called, homo-polar generators, or unipolar dynamos. They usually consist of a rotating magnetic disk where electrical current is passed from the center of the disk to its edge. Small increases in the motor input power result in large increases of output power, thus encouraging the idea of an over-unity cross-over point. Regardless of all of the theory and reasons pro and con, it will be exciting to see the results of Tewari's forthcoming experiments and videotapes.
It appears that all serious research and development activities in the energy conversion technologies will continue to be closely monitored and guarded by the existing oil, transportation, and economics industries. Serious researchers in these new areas (Meyer, Methernitha, Sweet) are not allowing "the establishment" to buy them out. At the same time, there is strong evidence of aggressive suppression. The German company Becocraft specializing in the development of "new energy devices" was forcibly shut down and its president quickly imprisoned on investment fraud charges in a court case that had only one plaintiff: the Utility Company of Cologne! (Marinov 1992). All of the investors of Becocraft fought the case to no avail. Closer to home, the US Patent Office has classified over 3,000 patent devices or applications under the secrecy order, Title 35, U.S. Code (1952) Sections 181-188. Where did that technology go? These patents would be a great place to start for a new company involved with defense conversion technologies for environmental use!
"Woe to you, you blind leaders of a hoard of blind, who say: 'This should be done and that should not be left undone.' You only represent a false teaching and ignore the laws of Creation." 
"It has been said that science is man's futile attempt to understand Nature. While it becomes important to learn, understand, and apply science in our everyday lives, it is equally important to continue the pursuit of unraveling the secrets of Nature." (ISNE 1993, from Forward 1).
If ignorance was a good enough reason to not try, the light bulb would have never been invented and the Earth would still be flat. Let us be judged by our work and repeatable results, and not by hasty words. If some of these works turn out to be not valid: So Be It; Let it Be Known; and Let's Move Forward with Integrity! We are all desperately looking for the next big breakthrough in modern physics to assist us in solving the escalating energy and environment crises! Do something to promote and encourage the continuation of these researchers and these works! If you don't do it, who will? If not now, when?
- 26th IECEC, Proceedings of the 26th IECEC, Volume 4, pp 329-492, August 1991: American Nuclear Society, 555 North Kensington Avenue, La Grange Park, IL 60525, $275.00.
- 27th IECEC, Proceedings of the 27th IECEC, Volume, pp 4.357-4.295, August 1992: Society of Automotive Engineers, 400 Commonwealth Drive, Warrendale, PA 15096-0001, Order No. P-259, $350.00.
- 28th IECEC, Proceedings of the 28th IECEC, August 1993: American Chemical Society, Meetings Department, 1155 Sixteenth Street N.W., Washington D.C. 20036, $310.00.
- Adams, R. "The Adams Pulsed Motor Generator Manual," Jan. 1993: Nexus New Times Magazine, PO Box 30, Mapleton Qld 4560, Australia, $50.00.
- AERI, Advanced Energy Research Institute, 14 Devonshire Mews West, London W1N 1FP, Great Britain.
- AFS, Academy for Future Sciences, PO Box FE, Los Gatos, CA 95031.
- Coler, H., "The Invention of Hans Coler, Relating to an Alleged New Source of Power," British Intelligence Objectives Sub-Committee report No. 1043 Item 31, 32 pp, Now Unclassified, Summer 1946. (Available from the authors for $5.00)
- Cromer, A., "Pathological Science: An Update," Skeptical Inquirer, Vol. 17, pp 400-407, 1993.
- Figgie, H. E. Jr., Bankruptcy 1995: The Coming Collapse of America and How to Stop It, Little, Brown and Company, US and Canada, 1992.
- GRG, Gravity Research Group, "Electrogravitics Systems: An Examination of Electrostatic Motion, Dynamic Counterbary, and Barycentric Control," Feb. 1956: Gravity Research Group report GRG-013/56, Wright Patterson AFB Technical Library, Catalog No. TL 565 A9, WPAFB, Ohio 45433.
- GRI, Group Research Institute, PO Box 438, Nelson, New Zealand.
- IASA, Institute for Advanced Studies at Austin, 4030 Braker Lane W., Suite 300, Austin, TX 78759.
- INE, Institute for New Energy, 1304 South College Avenue, Fort Collins, CO 80524, $40.00/yr.
- ITS, International Tesla Society, PO Box 5636, Colorado Springs, CO 80931.
- ISNE, Proceedings of the International Symposium on New Energy, April 16-18, 1993: International Association for New Science (IANS), 1304 South College Avenue, Fort Collins, CO 80524, (303) 482-3731, $45.00. IANS supports the INE.
- JPI, Japan Psychrotronic Institute, c/o Shiuji Inomata, Electrotechnical Laboratory, 1-1-4 Umezono, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305, Japan.
- Langmuir, I., "Pathological Science," Physics Today, 42: 36-48, October 1989.
- Marinov, S., "Regarding Becocraft - Letter to Mr. Richard von Weizsacker, President of the German Federal Republic, 10 October 1992" , Deutsche Physik, No. 7, East-West Publishers, Morellenfeldgasse 16, A-8010 Graz, Austria.
- Meyer, S. Water Fuel Cell Technical Brief, July 1991: Stanley A. Meyer, 3792 Grove City, OH 43123, $25.00.
- "New Energy News", PO Box 58639, Salt Lake City, UT 84158-8639: monthly newsletter, free to INE members, NEN Membership is $35/yr.
- Newman, J., The Energy Machine of Joseph Newman, July 1993: Joseph Westley Newman, Route 1, Box 52, Lucedale, Miss. 39452, $60.00.
- Nieper, H. A., Revolution in Technology, Medicine and Society, MIT Verlag, Germany, 1984 (In English): Tesla Book Company, PO Box 121873, Chula Vista, CA 91912, $27.00.
- SEA, Space Energy Association, PO Box 11422, Clearwater, FL 34616.
- Seike, S., The Principles of Ultra Relativity, 11th Ed., 1992: Space Research Institute, Box 33, Uwajima, Ehime (798), Japan, $70.00.
- Storms, E., "The Status of 'Cold Fusion'," 28th IECEC paper, August 1993.
- TI, Tesla Incorporated, 760 Prairie Ave., Craig, CO 81625.
- USP, Univ. of Science and Philosophy, Swannanoa Place, Box 520, Waynesboro, VA 22980.
The authors gratefully acknowledge these and many other researchers, scientists, and skeptics that have contributed serious open research and documentation to boldly advance science and technology for the benefit of the human race.
- Poltergeist, Screenplay to the MGM/UA film production and VHS videotape, 1987.
- Heinlein, Robert A., Stranger in a Strange Land, Berkley Books, 1982.
- Crichton, Michael, Jurassic Park, Ballantine Books, 1990.
- Rashid, Isa; Meier, Eduard. The Talmud of Jmmanuel, 24:29-30, 1990: Wild Flower Press, PO Box 230893, Tigard, Oregon, 97224, $17.20.
- Complete addresses and total prices are given.