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quantum chronology


Atom Splitting

(click to enlarge)

Subatomic or Quantum Chronology
This is the time line of the discovery of the divisibility of the atom. It is clear Keely was the first and most prolific discoverer of this phenomenon. Gustave Le Bon claimed first discovery status in 1896 but we can see Keely was prior but at least 20 years. [See Keely Chronology]

“How shall I illustrate this spiritual truth or wisdom? I will call it a king, who made a great feast or science for man his son. So he sends wisdom into the minds to call or reason about this great feast or science. They, that is their errors, prevented them from understanding, so he sent other ideas or arguments to convince the error so that it could understand. But the error made light of the truth and went their way and would not reason so that it could not get any foothold as yet. So the error ridiculed any idea that would rise in the minds that this truth ever could be reduced to a science. They discarded from their minds all idea of a science but admitted it as a gift or power. So when the king had failed to reduce this truth to a science because of the errors of the age, it was wroth and it sent forth its power and destroyed these errors that were murdering its science, and by its truth burnt up their old theory or society. Then said he, the wedding or science is ready to be understood by man (or the son).” [Phineas Parkhurst Quimby, A Parable] (underline added)


1600 William Gilbert publishes De Magnete
1637 Rene Descartes proposes wave theory of light
1665 Robert Hooke proposes wave theory of light
1668 Christiaan Huygens proposes wave theory of light
1710 Franklin discerns polar charge
1794 Molecule defined, Descartes[1]
1803 Atom first physical evidence, Dalton[2]
1818 John Dalton publishes 'System of Chemistry'
1831 Maxwell unifies electricity and magnetism.
1838-1851 Richard Laming discerns atomic core and electron cloud
1842 Waterton publishes kinetic their of gases.
1846 William Weber discerns polar fluids governed by inverse square law
1847 Helmholtz generalizes conservation of energy law.
1850 Clausis states the second law of thermodynamics.
1856 German glassblower Heinrich Geissler created a mercury vacuum pump that evacuated a glass tube to an extent not previously possible. Geissler invented the first gas-discharge lamp, the Geissler tube, consisting of a partially evacuated glass tube with a metal electrode at either end.[30]
1859 Kirchhoff establishes thermodynamic foundation of radiation theory.
1860 Maxwell publishes "Illustrations of the Dynamical Theory of Gases".
1861 Maxwell publishes "On Physical Lines of Force".
1863 Cap guns were introduced.[25]
1865 Maxwell publishes "A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field".
1865 James Clerk Maxwell predicts light is an electromagnetic wave.
1867 Maxwell publishes "On the Dynamical Theory of Gases".
1869 Johann Wilhelm Hittorf discovered a glow emitted from the cathode.
1870± Keely begins his work with 'ether' or particle physics.
1870 Macvicar publishes "Sketch of a Philosophy".
1870s Sir William Crookes developed the first cathode ray tube to have a high vacuum inside.
1871 Walter Russell born May 19th.
1872 Keely discovers "polar negative attraction, Pressure produced by Vibration and "imprisons the ether".
1873 Keely develops 110 thousand pounds of pressure from vibration (liberated atomic constituents).
1873 James Clerk Maxwell publishes "A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism".
1873-1878 Gibbs publishes several important papers on thermodynamics.
1874 Electron postulated, Stoney[9]
1874 George Johnstone Stoney suggests electron as 'single definite quantity of electricity (charge)'
1875 Keely dissociates water for first time with vibration.
1875 John Tyndall publishes Notes of a Course of Nine Lectures on Light
1876 Bell patents telephone.
1876 Eugen Goldstein showed that the rays from this glow cast a shadow, and he dubbed the rays cathode rays.
1877 Boltzmann defines entropy in terms of probabilities.
1879 Sir William Crookes discovers 'radiant matter' which he called the fourth state of matter (plasma). [See subdivision]
1881 Hermann Helmholtz argued that both positive and negative charges were divided into elementary parts, each of which "behaves like atoms of electricity"
1881 Stoney initially coined the term electrolion.
1886 Positive particle/ray (proton) noted, Goldstein[3]
1881 Carl Anton Bjerknes demonstrates the "Bjerknes Effect".
1882 Keely builds first generator of Etheric Force.
1882 Edison builds first commercial electric lighting.
1884 Nikola Tesla arrives in New York.
1884 Keely rotates globe motor.
1884 Keely claims a true levitation airship.
1885 Keely builds first Liberator (dissociates atoms).
1886 Bloomfield-Moore publishes Mr. Keely's Etheric Force
1886 Heaviside coins term "impedance".
1887 Michelson-Morley experiment[23]
1887 Keely achieves continuous motion.
1887 Keely publishes "Keely's Theoretical Charts embracing the Philosophy of Planetary Suspension, Mechanical Rotation by Negative Attraction, Control of Mind over Matter"
1887 Bloomfield-Moore publishes The Keely Motor Secret
1887 Nikola Tesla demonstrates his rotating magnetic field.
1887 Heinrich Hertz discovered that electrodes illuminated with ultraviolet light create electric sparks more easily.
1888 Keely dissociates quartz.[24]
1888 Keely determines ether cannot be harnessed to power motors.
1888 Heinrich Hertz detects radio waves.
1889 Professor Leidy visits Keely’s Lab.
1890 Keely levitates metal weight.
1890 Arthur Schuster was able to estimate the charge-to-mass ratio of the (cathode) ray components.
1891 Bloomfield-Moore publishes "The Connecting Link Between Mind and Matter - Keelys Progress - Part 2".
1891 Stoney coins the word "electron" as a fundamental unit of charge.
1891 Keely publishes "Latent Force and Theory of Vibratory Lift for Airships".
1892 Electron mass proposed by Hendrik Lorentz[4]
1893 Keely develops electricity from space or vacuum.
1983 Keely proposes atomoles: "Atomoles are elementary units of matter uniform in size and weight, and exist in solid, liquid, gaseous, and isolated forms." [Keely, plural atomolini; see 3.01 - Law of Matter and Force]
1893 Keely proposes atomolini: "The atomoles are made up of atomolini (singular atomolinus); the subdivision of matter from this point is beyond man's power, as at this point it escapes all control of apparatus, passing through glass and hardened steel as a luminous flame without heat, which is hardly seen before it vanishes, - a perpetual flame coldly luminous." [Keely, 1893]
1893 Bloomfield-Moore publishes "Keely and His Discoveries".
1894 Keely's forty laws published in Colville's Dashed Against the Rock.
1894 Stoney writes "... an estimate was made of the actual amount of this most remarkable fundamental unit of electricity, for which I have since ventured to suggest the name electron".
1895 Argon discovered.
1896 Electron discovered. Rutherford[4] First evidence atoms are not indivisible.
1896 J. J. Thomson, with his colleagues John S. Townsend and H. A. Wilson, performed experiments indicating that cathode rays really were unique particles, rather than waves, atoms or molecules as was believed earlier.
1896 J. J. Thomson uses the term "corpuscle" and estimates charge and mass ratio of electron.
1896 Henry Ford makes first self-propelled vehicle.
1896 Henri Becquerel and Ernest Rutherford explore natural radioactivity.
1896 Gustave Le Bon published a paper revealing the dissociation of matter and intra-atomic energy for which he claimed priority of discovery.
1897 Electron discovered. Thomson[10][14]
1898 Keely ends his work, dies November 27.

1898 Neon was discovered in 1898 by William Ramsay and Morris W. Travers.[29]
1899 Alpha particle, Rutherford[14]
1899 Photon discovered, Rutherford[14]
1899 Neutron term appears in literature[5]
1900, April Gustave Le Bon publishes his findings on intra-atomic energy.
1900 Max Planck propose the quantum of action.
1900 Henri Becquerel deduces beta rays and electrons are the same.
1900 Nikola Tesla writes The Problem of Increasing Human Energy
1903 Wright brothers first flight.
1903 Bosch - High voltage magnetos produce spark (plasma)
1904 Abegg’s Rule by Richard Abegg.
1905 Albert Einsteinphoto-electric effect[14]
1905 Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity.
1909 Gustave Le Bon publishes The Evolution of Matter detailing his dissociation of matter in the 1890s.
1909 Robert Millikan electron's charge was more carefully measured.
1910 Claude displays first commercial neon lamp (excited gas).[29]
1911 Nucleus discovered. Ernest Rutherford[6]
1913 Atomic Theory with nucleus and orbiting electrons.
1913 Atomic Number. Broek, Moseley[7]
1913 Isotopes discovered, Soddy[8]
1913 Niels Bohr postulated that electrons resided in quantized energy states, with the energy determined by the angular momentum of the electron's orbits about the nucleus.
1917 Proton discovered, Rutherford[3]
1919 In 1919, Rutherford had succeeded in disintegrating nitrogen atoms with alpha particles emitted from decaying radium atoms. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Cockcroft
1920 Neutron as part of nucleus, Rutherford[5]
1920 Proton term appears in literature.[3]
1925 Born, Heisenberg and Jordan formulate quantum mechanics.
1925 Nuclear Reaction reported.[3]
1926 Walter Russell publishes The Universal One uses the term "ether".
1928 Langmuir coins term "plasma".
1932 April 14. Walton and Cockroft split nucleus of atom.
1932 Neutron discovered, Chadwick[5]
1938 Nuclear Fission discovered[13], [28]
1939 Manhattan Project begins.
1941 28 June 1941, Roosevelt signed Executive Order 8807, which created the Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD), with Vannevar Bush as its director. [28]
1942 Self Sustaining nuclear reactor[12]
1945 First nuclear weapon, Trinity, July 16[11], [28]
1947 Kaon and pion discovered[26]
1953 Walter Russell publishes A New Concept of the Universe
1956 Fermi Liquid proposed [27] See Liquid Ether
1957 Walter Russell publishes Atomic Suicide
1961 Eight Fold particle classification proposed
1964 Quark Model proposed[26]
1968 Quark Model evidence found[26]

  1. [See Keelys Accomplishments for more complete listing of Keely's accomplishments]
  2. [See Bloomfield-Moore for more complete listing of her writings about Keely and SVP]
  3. [See Keely Chronology and Chronology for more complete listing of characters and events]
  4. [See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Subatomic_particle for detailed history of subatomic particles and a comprehensive list of them here: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_particles]

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Molecule
[2] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Dalton#Atomic_theory
[3] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proton
[4] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electron
[5] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neutron
[6] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atomic_nucleus
[7] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atomic_number
[8] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atom#Discovery_of_isotopes
[9] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atom#Discovery_of_the_electron
[10] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J._J._Thomson
[11] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trinity_(nuclear_test)
[12] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chicago_Pile-1
[13] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_fission
[14] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Subatomic_particle
[15] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Particle_physics
[16] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elementary_particle
[17] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_mechanics
[18] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_field_theory
[19] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Condensed_matter_physics
[20] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_electrodynamics
[21] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_chromodynamics
[22] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High_energy_nuclear_physics
[23] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michelson–Morley_experiment
[24] Keely and Science - Part 1
[25] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cap_gun
[26] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quark
[27] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fermi_liquid_theory
[28] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manhattan_Project
[29] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neon_lamp
[30] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fluorescent_lamp

See Also

What the Ether is full article
Chronology
Chronology post 1900
Chronology pre 1800
Keely Chronology
Page last modified on Wednesday 14 of June, 2017 03:50:30 MDT