Loading...
 

atomic weight

Atomic weight (symbol: Ar) is a dimensionless physical quantity, the ratio of the average mass of atoms of an element (from a given source) to 1/12 of the mass of an atom of carbon-12 (known as the unified atomic mass unit). The term is usually used, without further qualification, to refer to the standard atomic weights published at regular intervals by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) and which are intended to be applicable to normal laboratory materials. These standard atomic weights are reprinted in a wide variety of textbooks, commercial catalogues, wallcharts etc. The fact "relative atomic mass of the element" may also be used to describe this physical quantity, and indeed the continued use of the term "atomic weight" has attracted considerable controversy since at least the 1960s.

Atomic weights, unlike atomic masses (the masses of individual atoms), are not physical constants and vary from sample to sample. Nevertheless, they are sufficiently constant in "normal" samples to be of fundamental importance in chemistry. [Wikipedia]

The IUPAC definition of atomic weight is:
An atomic weight (relative atomic mass) of an element from a specified source is the ratio of the average mass per atom of the element to 1/12 of the mass of an atom of 12C.

The definition deliberately specifies "An atomic weight…", as an element will have different atomic weights depending on the source. For example, boron from Turkey has a lower atomic weight than boron from California, because of its different isotopic composition. Nevertheless, given the cost and difficulty of isotope analysis, it is usual to use the tabulated values of standard atomic weights which are ubiquitous in chemical laboratories. [Wikipedia]

John Dalton
"Atomic weight is the rate of vibration." [John Dalton]

Keely
"All atoms when in a state of tension are capable of oscillating at a pitch inversely as the cube of their atomic weights, and directly as their tension from 42 to 63 octaves per second, producing the creative force (Thermism), whose transmissive force (Rad-energy) propagated in solid, liquid, and gaseous ether, produces the static effects (Cohesion and Chemism) on other atoms of association, or dissociation, according to the Law of Harmonic Attraction and Law of Repulsion.

Scholium: Dark radiant heat begins at absolute zero temperature, and extends through light, chemical rays, actienic rays, and infra-violet rays, up to the dissociation of all molecules to the 63rd octave." (Keely, pre1894) Dashed Against the Rock

See Also

Actinic
Blue
Chemism
Father-Mother Principle
Fraunhofer Lines
Law of Attraction
Law of Attraction and Repulsion
Law of Harmonic Pitch
Law of Harmonic Vibrations
Law of Harmony
Law of Oscillating Atoms
Law of Repulsion
Law of Transformation of Forces
Rad-Energy
Scale of the Forces in Octaves
Table 14.03 - Ranges of Forces Vibration Forms Types and Governing Laws
8.12 - Law of Attraction
8.13 - Law of Repulsion
8.17 - Law of Harmonic Vibrations
8.22 - Law of Harmonic Pitch
9.4 - Law of Attraction
9.5 - Law of Repulsion
17.12 - Law of Oscillating Atomoles



Law of Vibrating Atomolic Substances

"Atoms are capable of vibrating within themselves at a pitch inversely as the Dyne (the local coefficient of Gravity), and as the atomic volume, directly as the atomic weight, producing the creative force (Electricity), whose transmissive force is propagated through atomolic solids, liquids, and gases, producing induction and the static effect of magnetism upon other atoms of attraction or repulsion, according to the Law of Harmonic Attraction and Repulsion.

Scholium: The phenomenon of Dynamic Electricity through a metallic conductor and of induction are identical. In a metallic conductor, the transmission is from atom to atom, through homologous interstices, filled with ether, presenting small areas in close proximity. In crystalline structures, heat, which expands the atoms, by twisting them produces striae, increases the resistance, etc. Between parallel wires and through air the induction takes place from large areas through a rarefied medium composed of a mixture of substances, whose atoms are separated by waves of repulsion of various pitches, discordant to electric vibrations; the said atoms sympathetically absorb the vibrations and dissipate from themselves, as centers, concentric waves of electric energy which produces heat and gravism." [Keely, 1894]

Return to Keelys Forty Laws

See Also

Attraction
Conduction
Creative
Etheric Elements
Gravism
Gravity
Induction
Keelys Forty Laws
Law of Assimilation
Law of Cycles
Law of Force
magnetic conduction
Principle of Regeneration
Repulsion
Transmissive
2.3 - Law of Vibrating Atomolic Substances
17.11 - Law of Vibrating Atomolic Substances
8.13 - Law of Repulsion
8.17 - Law of Harmonic Vibrations
8.29 - Law of Vibrating Atomolic Substances



Law of Oscillating Atomoles
"Atomoles oscillating at a uniform pitch (determined by their uniform size and weight) produce the creative force Atomolity, whose transmissive form, Gravism, is propagated through more rarefied media, producing the static effect upon all other atomoles, denominated Gravity." Keely, 1893

See Also

2.4 - Law of Oscillating Atomoles
8.12 - Law of Attraction
8.13 - Law of Repulsion
8.17 - Law of Harmonic Vibrations
8.22 - Law of Harmonic Pitch
9.4 - Law of Attraction
9.5 - Law of Repulsion
14.11 - Ranges of Forces Effects and Actions
17.12 - Law of Oscillating Atomoles
Creative Force
Ether
Etheric Elements
Father-Mother Principle
Fraunhofer Lines
Gravity
Law of Attraction
Law of Attraction and Repulsion
Law of Harmonic Pitch
Law of Harmonic Vibrations
Law of Harmony
Law of Oscillating Atomic Substances
Law of Oscillating Atoms
Law of Repulsion
Law of Transformation of Forces
Part 17 - Gravity
Rad-Energy
Scale of the Forces in Octaves
Table 14.03 - Ranges of Forces Vibration Forms Types and Governing Laws





Law of Atomic Pitch
"Atoms have each a different and definite pitch, at which they naturally vibrate.

Scholium: atomic pitch is determined directly from its simple spectrum.

Scholium: atomic pitch is determined by computations from its associate spectrum with all other atoms, as in known spectra.

Scholium: atomic pitches are more important working data than Atomic weights; tables of atomic pitches must be precise." Keely

See Also

Keelys Forty Laws
Law of Transformation of Forces
Laws


Law of Pitch of Atomic Oscillation
"Atoms not isolated and in a state of tension between forces that oppose and increase the equilibrium oscillate bodily at a pitch that is a resultant of the Atomic weight, Atomic volume, and tension." Keely, 1893

This law explains in part the dynamic within Russell's Locked Potentials of the elements.

See Also

Chart of Locked Potentials
Keelys Forty Laws
Laws
Locked Potentials and Subdivisions
Locked Potentials and the Square Law
Part 12 - Russells Locked Potentials
Scale of Locked Potentials
12.01 - Scale of Locked Potentials
12.04 - Locked Potentials and the Square Law


Law of Variation of Atomic Oscillation by Temperature

"The force of cohesion diminishes inversely as the square of the distance the atoms are apart, and the force of the chemical affinity diminishes in the same ratio. Heat increases the amplitude of the oscillations in a direct ratio to the temperature of the natural scale.

Scholium: New thermometers and accurate thermometric tables, on the natural base, wherein doubling the temperature doubles the pitch of the transmissive energy, are required. Such a table of temperature will bear natural relations to Atomic weights, pitches, specific heats, chemical affinities, fusions, solubilities, etc., and will disclose new laws. One table for each must be constructed." Keely

See Also

Cohesion
Heat
Oscillation
Part 12 - Russells Locked Potentials
variation



See Also

Frequency
Mass
Weight
Page last modified on Sunday 24 of April, 2016 05:18:26 MDT

Search For a Wiki Page

Last-Visited Pages