**Rod Fixed at Both Ends**

"A rod fixed at both ends and caused to vibrate transversely divides itself in the same manner as a string vibrating transversely.

"But the succession of its

**overtones**is not the same as those of a string, for while the series of tones emitted by the string is expressed by the natural numbers, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, etc., the series of tones emitted by the rod is expressed by the squares of the odd numbers, 3, 5, 7, 9, etc." [from "Sound" by John Tyndall]

**Rod Fixed at One End**

"A rod fixed at one end can also vibrate as a whole, or can divide itself into vibrating segments separated from each other by nodes.

"In this case the rate of vibration of the fundamental tone is to that of the first

**overtone**as 4:25, or as the square of 2 to the square of 5. From the first division onwards the rates of vibration are proportional to the squares of the odd numbers, 3, 5, 7, 9, etc.

"With rods of different lengths the rate of vibration is inversely proportional to the square of the length of the rod." [from "Sound", John Tyndall]

See Also

**04 - On the Pitch of Musical Sounds**

**Figure 9.5 - Phases of a Wave as series of Expansions and Contractions**

**Harmonic Scale**

**Harmonic Series**

**Harmonics**

**Helmholtz Subharmonic Series**

**Law of Harmonic Vibrations**

**Overtone Series**

**9.8 - Spontaneous Creation of Harmonic Series**