This article has been extensively investigated here: Polar Interchange - Table of Contents
A Brief Story of Creation
It MIGHT be well at this juncture to interpolate a very brief digest of the principle of the unity of Force.3 If one can conceive of One Force dividing itself into the appearance of two opposite forces, each force departing from the other in opposite directions and running around in circles, passing each other half-way, one would get the first step of the concept of Creation. We will name these forces male and female, or positive and negative, or genero-active and radio-active, or Electricity and magnetism, or gravitation and radiation, or attraction and repulsion, or life and death, or composing and decomposing, or generation and degeneration, or integrating and disintegrating, or cold and heat, or any other names of opposites one can think of. One cannot think of any two opposite names which could not appropriately be added in these two columns.
For the second step, one must consider that the One Force had a purpose in so dividing itself other than just to create a mechanistic universe. To avoid long philosophical and scientific discussions, let us describe this purpose as the idea of a Creative Force desiring to express the images of ideas thought out by it into the forms of those ideas. Just as man must build a machine to produce his ideas in vast quantities, so must the Universal One Force do the same thing. More simply still, it is the desire to bring form and the dimensions of form out of a dimensionless void by that quality of thinking that we call imagination. The result of force and motion is an orderly and symmetrical universe in which every effect is balanced by a perfect mechanistic plan in which there is no waste and no loss.
It is impossible to conceive of so marvelous a plan coming into being automatically. There must be an Intelligence back of and within it, a Supreme Intelligence. This creating universe of form must be the concept of a MIND Force, an indestructible and universal One Thing. No matter by what name one may call this Force, it is there, must be there. And it must be living, perpetually living, and perpetually thinking, for every manifestation of its force is repeated in the images created by it. Also every part of it must be a part of itself for there is nothing, can be nothing, in the universe outside of itself. Further than that, every manifestation of its thinking process is repeated in every growing thing, and all things are growing things. Further still, this universe of motion must be a continuing one, and every manifestation of its force must be continuous. Also it must be a simple force for its cause and its plan are simple.
Out of great simplicity of the two way expression of One Force comes the evolution of one form, the sphere, and the very few motives which we see in the octaves of the elements. From the complexing of these few motives and the dissection of its one form, Nature invents such an amazing array of seemingly different patterns and effects that we are deceived into believing that the universe is composed of an endless array of many things. All creating things, however, keep a record of their own complexing through their connection with their spatial pole in that mechanical compression-expansion pump, with which all mass is endowed, which we call breathing. All mass breathes. It inhales and exhales in unison with the frequencies of its potential position in the dimensional universe of the motion of force.
The universe has not been created, it is creating by a thinking Force, which destroys that which it is creating in a manner which keeps a perfect balance between composing and decomposing ideas. Newly born ideas are given a preponderance of life during a generative period, which is maximum at maturity, while death is given its preponderance in degenerating things. Death does not mean discontinuance, for no idea discontinues. Death means disappearance; just an interval between that and reappearance. This is a repetitive universe of continuing things. There is always a gap in every cycle of motion, when expanding things get beyond our physical range of perception, but they come back again within it always.
The Universal One was written to show by this two-way plan of the One Force that the only thing created is form, and the only form created is the sphere. The sphere is the ultimate result of all action. Within the sphere all other forms are included. It also traced the fact that form is an illusion of motion which changed continually in that orderliness which we call growth and evolution. Growing things appear from invisibility, grow to a maximum of perfection in maturity, and disappear into invisibility. Every effect of motion appears in every high potential and disappears in every low potential in this universe. Invisibility does not mean discontinuance. It means only that temporary disappearance which follows every appearance and which is, in its turn, followed by reappearance.
If we question our thinking process, we will find that ideas generate in the same manner, grow to a maximum and then degenerate because of fatigue into disappearance. If we fit the mechanics of life and death to this process, it will be found to correspond exactly. The conclusion drawn is that all forms are the ideas thought out by the Creative Force and that force and motion are tools used in fashioning its ideas as a sculptor's tools mould the sculptor's idea. If this conclusion is logical, creation is but a concept of dimensional form and has no real existence. It has only an appearance of existence as an illusion of motion.
The evidence of this two-way divine plan of mechanics proves that all "created" forms are but reflections in a mirror which we call Nature, of the ideas conceived by the One Thinking Force which could more appropriately be called MIND than by any other name. Mind, then, is the only existent reality in this universe of changing things,
Let us now build up this orderly mechanistic process from a hypothetical beginning and superimpose one idea upon another in progressive steps until the picture is completed. An action takes place which has for its intent the gathering of the outer void to one point by a pulling inward from within (syntropy) pumping oscillation. Non-dimension now becomes dimensional because direction has been created, the inward direction toward density. This action causes another effect to take place simultaneously. The inward pull is resisted by a reaction of thrusting outward (entropy) that which was gathered in. The One Force can not create form by pumping the entire homogeneity of its equilibrium into an unstable or unbalanced single solid form, because the desire to do that sets up a resistant desire to oppose the doing of that thing.
We now have three things to consider; first, the pulling inward charging force (syntropy) which approaches itself only because it focuses on a point; second, the thrusting outward discharging force (entropy) which departs from not only the other force but from itself, because it spreads itself out into a larger area; and third, a quality of resistance which belongs equally to both forces.
Now we come to the third step. After finding that 100% of the One Force is divided into 50 each of an action and reaction force, the action force, which we will now name the electro-generative force, finds that it has the advantage of its opposed magneto-radiative force in the fact that its 50% pulls half of the energy of whole tenuous volumes occupying thousands of millions of cubic miles into small dense volumes so infinitesimal in comparison with the whole that each one might be compared to a single speck of dust in the center of an armory.
This is just what the generative force desires to do and a thorough comprehension of this most important step in the scheme of creation is absolutely necessary in order to understand the advantage that the generative force has over the degenerative in the struggle for supremacy.
"Pure sympathetic concordants (syntropy) are as antagonistic to negative discordants (entropy) as the negative is to the positive; but the vast volume the sympathetic holds over the non-sympathetic, in ethereal space, makes it at once the ruling medium and readjuster of all opposing conditions if properly brought to bear upon them." Keely, Keely and HIs Discoveries, Chapter 7
Consider it for a moment. One half of a total quantum of energy accumulates at the exact center of a volume so vast that its particles are hundreds of millions of times closer together than the particles of the other half. What is the result? "Solids" of high potential and high inductivity become insulated from each other throughout the universe by low potential fields of low conductivity. Out of "space" the generative force has pulled whirling vortices into gravitation centers, to accumulate energy into high pressure centers which we call solids.
Back again into space, the degenerative force pushes this accumulated energy by that process which we know as radiation. What an inconceivably great advantage the generative force has over its equally strong opponent can be best realized by comparing the energy locked up in a ton of coal with an equal quantum of energy in fully expanded water vapor miles above the earth. It is the advantage of concentration over decentration. It is as though one half of New York City's population were spread out over the continent, each one ten miles from his nearest neighbor, and put into business competition with the other four millions who are all concentrated in a space equal to that occupied by only four of the decentrated half.
We are now ready to consider the next step, a vastly important step which we will designate as relative preponderance. This idea of preponderance of opposite effects present in every mass has been stoutly denied. In all electric practice a mass is considered either positively or negatively "charged." Such a possibility as both charges being present in every mass is not considered in modern science. We shall not only see how absolutely necessary it is to a continuing universe but how evident it is in Nature which plainly tells us that the universe is not running down to zero but is winding up as fast as it is running down. (underline added)
Radio-activity and genero-activity are each exactly fifty per cent of the whole. Let us then once more accentuate the fact of relative volume and realize that the two equal forces are divided, one into a very large volume of the same amount of energy spread out into what we call low potential, the other equal half packed closely into a small volume of high potential. Let us add one more two-way idea to the plan which we will call expansion pressure (which is the negative direction toward low pressure), and contraction pressure (which is the positive direction toward high pressure). Let us connect the maximum low and maximum high positions of these two opposite pressures with pistons to get the driving force of the universal machine. The machine itself is made up of two sets of pairs of wheels, all geared together, each pair cross-geared so that each set is turning in opposite directions, and graded in sizes from large slowly turning ones, to small ones which turn 186,400 times per second.
These sets are so arranged that the smallest is next to the biggest in each set at one end of the piston-while at the other end, which is the middle of the cycle, both sets of wheels are exactly the same size. To understand why the little wheels are next to the big wheels in each case, it is necessary to understand that the One Force discovered that it could not send each entire half of its energy in opposite directions around the cycle, so each had to lose a little to the other in a series of progressive preponderances and take them around the cycle with them in pairs of effects instead of as single effects. We will come back to this idea again shortly.
Let us now briefly interpolate another idea, the idea of time, and the balance of time in its two directions. Positive time, which is generative, in proceeding in the inductive direction, must accelerate in order that small volume may sweep over areas equal to areas swept over by large volume. In the opposite direction, negative time, which is degenerative, must decelerate to keep a balance of all dimensions. That is why all opposites must be in pairs and why all but the two sets of pairs half way round the cycle have different sized wheels. (See Reciprocating Proportionality)
Consider the time element in rotation and revolution for example. They are one set of pairs. Mercury must revolve very fast to sweep out areas equal to Jupiter's, in proportion to their relative potentials, and Jupiter must travel very slowly in order to keep from getting ahead. On the other hand, Jupiter must rotate extremely fast to balance Mercury's slow rotation.
We are ready now for the next step which should be anticipated because it is so logical. The electro-gravitative force does not keep on attracting new energy into its vortex forever for the energy in its respective volume of influence would be used up. To restore the supply, the radiated energy, which was exhaled from the generated solid into the vast field surrounding it, bends around gradually to an equilibrium position where both opposing forces are even enough to neutralize each other. At this low pressure position the radiated energy stops expanding, and contracts as it bends in a slow gradual spiral curve within the intake of the electro-generative inhalation.
Now, we are at the fifth step of this progression with a realization that a repetitive cycle of a series of two opposing dimensions has been perfected as a mechanistic means of bringing form of varying densities into the universe. We now have positive spiral pressure curves, which we call "centripetal force," and we have negative spiral pressure curves which we call "centrifugal force." All energy must travel along those two curves no matter whether that energy is an invisible flux or a visible solid. Because of the spiral concept in a curved universe one must conceive of spiral gears and many eccentricities added to the universal machine. This concept is necessary in order to understand the orderly progression of an effect which is known as crystallization.
This intricate and extremely complex idea cannot be more than touched upon here but the simplicity of its fundamental basis is so plainly written in Nature that its complexities cannot elude one who understands the universal plan. To put it briefly Nature is aiming at the true sphere in all her gyroscopic turnings. She finishes her sphere only in one part of the universal machine which is half way around the cycle where the wheels are the same size. In the wave this position is at trough and crest. At this position an element called carbon crystallizes in true cube. It is the only element which does crystallize in absolutely symmetrical true cube because it is the pivotal point of ten efforts of Nature to get her two halves equally divided to equal opposites. These ten waves are what are known as the octaves of the elements. The octaves are spiral waves along which the elements are strung like discs on a string. As a matter of fact, the elements are the wheels of the universal machine and the reason for this variance in form, eccentricities, gearing and crystallization is because they all are parts of a sphere within which all separate parts fit together.
In carbon the nucleus of the atom is a true sphere, but in no other atom is there a true sphere. All other atoms only approximate the sphere and then only in passing the amplitude positions of their waves where both sets of wheels of the universal machine are the same size. The ten octaves constitute a complete cycle of all effects of motion, of which the first half overlaps the last half of the last octave. This makes carbon the pivotal point of the cycle. In the beginning of the cycle all generative dimensions correspond exactly to the radiative dimensions of the overlapping end. Radio-active emanations of the elements at the end of the cycle have the speed of light in their return to space. Genero-active corpuscles have exactly the same speed as they begin their journey from the unseen universe into the visible range.
Of the ten waves only five and not quite a half are within the visible or perceptible range. The rest are beyond perception as elements but their existence is clearly indicated in the spectra of all other elements. I pointed out the fact in my first book that spectrum lines were letters and words of a universal language of Light which plainly recorded all effects of motion, and asked science to read each spectrum as cumulative history and not as an individual record of each element. I stated that light was Nature's means of communication between the spatial controls of her invisible universe and the poles of her universe of form. The language of Light is as legible and as orderly as our written and spoken language. Its pressure symbols have as definite a meaning as our alphabetical symbols, or as the dots and dashes of our telegraphic code. They all have their relations in the spectrum cycle of varying pressures.
Much of this language has been available to science for many years, through spectroscopic pressure lines, but science has translated each set of pressure lines as belonging to one unit or one element. Science has not realized that each element contains within it all of the other elements, just as this planet, which is an "electron" of an element, contains all of the other elements within it, being just preponderantly one element. All of the language of Light is comprehensible to the inner Minds of all men when they learn how to connect up with the spatial controls of their real selves, of which their bodies and brains are but temporary and periodic extensions.
I stated that all of the elements of the entire cycle are within each other and that by making allowance for the changing pressures of each succeeding octave the history of the past could be clearly deciphered. Future history cannot be so deciphered because unevolved elements exist only in potentiality within the evolved ones, just as the full oak exists potentially within the seed of the oak and in the wave dimensions of the growing oak sapling. This idea of the existence of "patterns" of all evolving things recorded in wave dimensions and locked up in the inert gases until the time of their regeneration was ridiculed by a scientific world which was not then ready to consider a continuing universe of motion even though I pointed out very clearly the history of the evolution of iron from its beginning in the unseen universe up to its present position in its cycle in its spectrum lines. When science is fully willing to accept the continuity of all effects of motion the roads within the unseen universe will be as clearly posted as the Lincoln Highway.
I also pointed out the clearly evident fact that hydrogen, carbon, silicon and the other overtone elements born on the amplitude positions of their waves, were not single elements but were complex ones. Each one of these contains seven full tones within it and in the case of carbon and silicon many split tones of new metals of great value to industry can be secured by understanding Nature's simple principles. Carbon metal, for example, will have a tensile strength of over three hundred thousand pounds. Silicon steel will become an ideal structural steel of more than double the present tensile strength, and very much cheaper because of the unlimited supply of sand as compared to iron ore.
By understanding Nature's method of acquiring density, industry can at least double the density of any metal. Nature knows how to compact her atoms so that a cubic inch weighs a ton. Man has all the electric power at his disposal that Nature has but he has not yet observed how Nature contracts her atoms. He has not even believed that Nature is genero-active so he has been content with expanding her atoms, then letting them freeze as they will instead of as he wills. When he is willing to accept the idea of the universe as a complexity of solenoid coils of varying dimensions which exert their influence two ways simultaneously, and that every radio-active effect of expansion is simultaneously accompanied by a genero-active effect of contraction, he will then command nature to give him greater density in the materials furnished him by her for his use, instead of passively taking them as created and unalterable finalities.
We are close to the day when industry will have this knowledge of now unbelievable densities and the advantage of transmutation of one substance into another. Both of these effects of motion are attainable only through knowledge of the wave and of the laws of polarization. Before that day comes, however, science must comprehend the great simplicity of Nature's plan and eliminate the inconsistent and unworkable complexities of her many theories which have no precedents in Nature. Nature's entire simple plan is written in each and every individual wave. To know the mechanics of the wave is to know the entire secret of Nature. (underline added)
We are now ready for another idea, the idea of orbit along the spiral path of which all energy must be pumped centripetally into a vortex to create the forms of the images of universal idea, or out of it, centrifugally, to tear those forms apart. This introduces a new idea into the concept which we call "polarity" for polarity and orbit are as indissolubly linked together as light and color are. Like the crystallization idea, this very important part of the machine is too involved and intricate to explain in so limited a space. It requires a volume in itself.
However, it is sufficient for the moment to say that all mass is one mass in the sense that it is connected together through its electric and its magnetic poles, which we only know as magnetic poles as though both were alike. They are not alike, for they are opposites, having opposite effects and opposite offices. They work two ways as all other effects and all other dimensions do. These poles act as regulators to keep each mass in the universe in its proper position in respect to all other masses, to keep its proper density in respect to other mass, and to keep all other relative dimensions properly adjusted. They are the rudders which steer each mass and the gyroscope control which keeps each mass revolving in its true plane. They also act as wireless connections to keep the entire universe informed of every changing event.
These pole's are so perfect in their workings, and so sensitive, that if a child throws a ball on this planet, every mass in the universe adjusts itself immediately to the changing position of that ball. The element of time does not enter into this effect of motion for it is universally simultaneous. Every mass in every system has an orderly and progressive change of position for its poles which are controlled from space by like poles, of which they are but the extensions. The spatial poles are also extensions of an infinite number of extensions, which have their focal point in the One universal equilibrium from which all polarized force extends as the appearance of two forces. One extension of the divided One Force controls all of the charging effects which accumulates energy gravitatively, by employing that centripetal, contractive attribute which is the electric endothermic inhalation of the One Force. The other extension controls all of the discharging effects which distributes energy radiationally, by employing that centrifugal expansive attribute which is the magnetic, exothermic exhalation of the living One Force.
The function of poles is to create and to destroy things simultaneously in an orderliness of preponderance which we call "growth." They are opposites, with separate functions, separate effects and separate directions. If they come together anywhere in the universe they destroy each other. It is the greatest error of science to be deceived by this desire of mutual annihilation into concluding that they attract each other. How perfectly these polarized extensions of the universal One Force carry out the orders of the thinking Mind back of them will be told in much detail of formulae and description in other writings.
Before passing this subject, however, let us give thought to the fact that every operative machine of man's is polarized while in action by some mechanical force which alternately exerts expansion and compression power in alternating sequences. All electrically operated, steam driven, hydraulic and air pressure machines have positive and negative connections for pumping the compression and expansion plus and minus forces through them. These connections are the poles of the machine which will work when the polarizing force runs through them and are dead otherwise.
Just as workable machines can be considered as extensions of men's minds, for they do what man wills them to do and perform the arts for which purpose he created them, so may all corpuscles of matter be considered as extensions or reflections of the Mind Force doing what it wills thereto do. Mind Force created these "machines" just as human mind force created its machines, solely for the mutual purpose of giving expression to ideas thought out by Mind.
"All forces in nature are mind forces: magnetic, electric, galvanic, acoustic, solar, are all governed by the triune streams of celestial infinity; as also the molecular, intermolecular, atomic, and interatomic. The remote depths of all their acoustic centers become subservient to the third, sixth, and ninth position of the diatonic, harmonic and enharmonic chords; which, when resonantly induced, concentrate concordant harmony, by reducing their range of corpuscular motion, drawing them as if towards each other's neutral center of attractive infinity." Keely, Keely and His Discoveries, Chapter 19
The polarized points of matter are the visible electrodes connecting Nature's wireless current of divided Force with the extensions of that Force in space to keep them working. In the same sense men's brains are but material extensions of the universal thinking Mind Force. As long as one's brain remains polarized, and works in unison with every polarized mass which constitutes that very large community which he thinks of as himself alone, just so long will his brain function as a current carrier of the universal Force. He is directly connected with its unlimited supply to use when and as he knows how to use it.
"The activity of the corpuscles represents its outflow from the luminiferous track towards the molecular centers of neutrality, revealing the connecting link between mind and matter." Keely, Snell Manuscript
Not one corpuscle in this universe is independent of its connection with the universal Force during its entire repetitive cycles between appearance, disappearance and reappearance. These space controls between large masses, although invisible, can be located mathematically and this knowledge will greatly aid the astronomer in retracing the path of our solar system through the ages gone by, and its future path. I have already located its present position in its wave as corresponding to that occupied by iron in the elements. It is not, however, a celestial atom of iron as first calculations indicated, for it has not yet reached the octave in its cycle occupied by iron. It is in the plane of iron but in the carbon octave between boron and carbon.
As polarity measures the intensity of preponderance between charge and discharge exactly as weight measures the difference between thrust and pull (which mean the same thing) polarity is zero in any equilibrium and maximum in the instability which immediately precedes the amplitude position of a wave, or in the oblateness of the nearly perfect sphere. It would be extremely difficult for science to calculate the exact longitude of these poles on an oblate planet but it would be a simple thing to calculate their latitudes, or their distances from its pole of rotation, if the inclination of that pole to the solar equator and the oblateness of the planet are known. When a sun or planet is a true sphere, the magnetic poles disappear in the pole of rotation and will not again reappear until oblateness begins again at the degenerate half of the cycle of that particular mass.
We are now where we must add another two-way dimension through which the universal messages are taken, the magnetic field. A two-way conscious person would properly name it the electromagnetic field, for that part of it which pulls inward toward concentrating or condensing mass is electric. The effect which this positive dimension causes, we call "gravitation." On the contrary that part of the field which pushes outward toward vacuity is the negative field, which is magnetic, or dissipative. We call this effect "radiation."
It is common knowledge that a coil of wire carrying many turns will step energy up or down according to the direction of the current. Imagine a spherical volume of energy, cut through the middle as an orange is halved. If you could see the electric spiral turns, they would look like a spiral vortex of many wires, close together and well defined near the center until lost suddenly in what one calls a solid. In this they become apparently fused. The outer ends of the spiral are very broad hands of increasingly foggy indefiniteness. If one could see such an effect one could understand Nature's solenoid principle of stepping energy up and down.
Let us now introduce another idea as the next step, the idea of mathematical relations, or universal ratios. The solid mass of high potential, being a known fifty per cent and its field fifty per cent, makes it possible to estimate other dimensions. For example, if the solid mass is fifty per cent and we know that the inward pull is exactly equal to the outward pull, we then know that exactly twenty-five per cent of each force is exerted in each direction within the high potential solid, and that the other twenty-five per cent of each force is passing in opposite directions within the low potential field.
The following fundamental laws governing mathematical relations will briefly convey the idea of the principles governing universal ratios which is in every effect of motion the direct and inverse square of the distance area or time dimensions and the cube of volume or potential dimensions. The direct and the inverse are the two way indicators of direction, the latter belonging to gravitational (syntropy) and the former to radiational (entropy) effects.
The energy of the volume in an electro-magnetic field surrounding a mass is equal to the energy in that mass. All dimensions contract in the direction of electric force and expand in the direction of magnetic force in universal ratio. Every effort of motion which is added to any expression of one force must be equally subtracted from any expression of the opposite force. Every plus pressure total must be balanced by a minus one to maintain a system in equilibrium. All dimensions simultaneously expand and contract in opposite directions of the same ratio.
- Expansion (entropy) pressure is in direct ratio to the square of the distance, area, plane, orbit or time unit, and to the cube of the volume. see Square Law
- Contraction (syntropy) pressure is in inverse ratio to the square of the distance, area, plane orbit or time unit, and to the cube of the volume. see Inverse Square Law
Every mass in the universe occupies a measurable potential position.
- Every generative (syntropy) effect of motion begins its cycle at its maximum in the region of lowest pressure, loses one half of every dimension of it at the high pressure point of its cycle wave, and exhausts its effect at the place of its beginning.
- Every radiative (entropy) effect of motion begins its cycle at its minimum in the region of the lowest pressure, gains one-half of every dimension of it at the high pressure point of its cycle wave, and attains its maximum at the place of its ending.
These last two laws lead us to a comprehension of the orderliness of preponderance. Let us consider the cycle of life and death, which includes that element of time called growth as well as all other dimensions. Figure 11 illustrates preponderant life and diminutive death born in the same cradle and preponderant death and life parting company at the grave. If one will closely study Figure 12, it will be clearly seen that in whichever direction one force proceeds or gains in preponderance the other goes in the opposite direction and equally loses its preponderance. At every opposite end of any radius drawn through this cycle in any direction, the quantum of each force, if added together, would always exactly equal one half of the whole quantum of force. If the preponderance and its lesser opposite, at either end of the radius at any point in the circle, were added together the whole quantum would also equal one half of the force. It can readily be understood that the sum total of the two halves of the force added together will be the whole quantum of the One Force. This being understood, the fundamental law of physics which says that "every action is accompanied by an equal and opposite reaction" is thoroughly accounted for.
We are now ready to observe carefully the passing point of both forces. At this point and only at this point both forces are equal in their opposition. Still remembering that this half way point of life's maturity is one end of a radius, and recalling that the other end is where life began and death ended, it can readily be understood that these equal opposites differ from the equal totals of opposites at the ends of radii which cross the circle in any other than this direction. These two positions represent stability. All other positions are unstable positions.
Figure 12 suggests the orderliness of all effects of motion for all add to one hundred per cent in every variation of preponderances as well as at the equilibrium points. At the two stable points in the mechanics of the universe which are dead centers, force does not appear to exist and the motion of force ceases. The motion of inertia or impulse gained from force when force acted upon it is the only motion at these two stable points and this motion carries through to the beginning of instability on another round of the cycle. At either of these two constantly shifting points, potential is equalized and weight is non-existent.
Every freely floating mass in the universe, whether an electron of an atomic system or a planet of a solar system, is assembled around one of these points and pivots around it. All freely floating masses in the universe are assembled around a mutual gravitative point in space and pivot around it in orbits determined by a mutual radiative point in space.
Every two freely floating masses in the universe have polarization points in space around one of which they both pivot in an orbit determined by the repulsion strength of the other.
If the moon and the earth were the same in all dimensions, they would pivot around a low pressure point midway between them, while the point itself would describe a circular orbit around the sun carrying with it the two gyrating partners in a celestial dance.
Between every two masses in the universe is an invisible bar magnet which controls their respective proximities at all times. There are not two separate or independent things in the entire universe, for each apparantly separate part is not only interdependent but is constantly interchanging its part with every other part through invisible connecting lines of force.
The Universe is Indissolubly United.
Electrons, planets and satellites which revolve around their primaries, do not do so because of the gravitative pull of said primaries plus the mythical and mysterious "initial impetus.â€œ They all pivot around their mutual high pressure points in orbits determined by the thrusting, repellative power of their low pressure points which hold each one at arm's length. The only reason why small ones are apparently governed by larger ones is a question of relative density and mass. The heavy dense bodies swing the light ones as a heavy partner in a dance would swing his light partner, and naturally the low pressure points would keep pace with the dance, keeping ever between them, exerting always their centrifugal thrusting power like a weight swung at the end of a string.
The office of low pressure points or radiative centers is purely dissipative. Its force is centrifugal and its process is fast rotation and slow revolution. It shortens the day into disappearance and likewise lengthens the year. The office of gravitative centers is solely to accumulate, its force is centripetal and its process is retarded rotation and speedy revolution. It lengthens the day into disappearance and likewise shortens the year. If these effects of motion are true to Nature's practice, it is wrong to say that centripetal force attracts centrifugal force, which is the equivalent of saying that charge attracts discharge.
Let us consider the life and death cycle of motion. At the zero-fifty point where life and death are born in the same cradle, life starts in one direction as fifty and death in the other as zero. When life has gone to the forty-nine position death has scored one in the opposite direction, and so on till they meet at life's maturity where life and growth are half gone and death begins to assume preponderance. If one is confused by the comparison of infancy and maturity in relation to relative strength and feels that the strong man of forty is much stronger genero-actively than the infant, he must remember that energy has been stepped up to that point, and though he is apparently more generative he is in reality just half as generative. His voltage alone has been changed. Also half of life is gone and half of death has overtaken him. From that point on his energy steps down, for death assumes control.
By referring to one of the above laws, one may see that the genero-active corpuscles at the zero-fifty position would, for example, have a speed of 186,000 miles a second while radio-active emanations would be zero. Radium, for example, is nearly around the cycle where its emanations register about 180,000 miles. On the contrary, sodium which is just newly born is only slightly radioactive.
The last idea that will add to this structure is the idea of temperature, as known by the words heat and cold. Heat is so generally misunderstood that it is necessary to correct wrongful impressions and fit it in to the universal machine where it belongs. Heat is purely a dimension of energy just as a pound or an ampere are. The common and accepted premise which says that "heat is a form of energy" is an error. If the thermometer registers 72 degrees "of heat" it means just what the yard stick means when it registers eleven inches of distance, or what the scales means when it registers five pounds of excess potential. Weight in pounds is not a "form of energy." It is the substance which is the energy and it is the excess of potential which is the weight. Weight is its measure as the degree of heat is a measure.
Nor is it proper to say that cold is less heat. Cold is the positive or generative direction of this two-way dimension of which heat is the negative or radiative direction. The universe is cyclic. All effects of motion in the cycle change. Heat and cold are dimensions which register the temperature changes at every position of the cycle. The temperature cycle herein follows. By studying it, one may see that this is a continuing universe and that every atom in it is continuous. The author's book from which these extracts were rewritten was based on the continuous atom and, when written, the world of science accepted only the discontinuous atom and the running down universe of wasting, radiant energy.
Thus the cycle of opposition is completed. One effect of motion is always followed by its opposite. Like all opposites heat and cold are born with and of each other. The old formula to which we are accustomed reads: "Cold contracts, contraction heats, heat expands, and expansion cools." This leaves the cycle incomplete because of the omission of that which makes this universe a creating or evolving one. Cold does not contract. Cold generates electric force. Electricity is the attractive force, and it is electric generation which contracts. It is proper to say that expanding bodies cool and that cooling bodies contract, but not that cold contracts. (underline added)
Conversely, heat does not expand. Heat radiates magnetic force. Magnetism is the separative force, and it is the separative force of radiation which expands. It is proper to say that contracting bodies heat and that heating bodies expand, but not that heat expands. Discharging and discharged bodies cool. Cooling bodies generate. Generating bodies draw closer to each other. They attract. Generation heats through resistance to generation. Heating under pressure is nature's method of assembling mass. Heating is natureâ€™s process of moulding form. Cooling is nature's process of complexing form. All form is simplified by heating. All form becomes complex by cooling. The sun shapes her melted planets and satellites into spheres, the simplest of forms and puts them out to cool. Thus they begin their complexing. All planets or satellites are born at the equatorial belts of their primaries and end their careers, or what little is left of them, at their primariesâ€™ poles. (underline added)
The complexities of Nature's multitudinous forms in those effects which we call "living" matter, begin with cooling. Like the pressure gauge on the boiler which indicates the pressure developed within, or the voltmeter on the dynamo which indicates the resistance to induction developed by the charging of the generator, or the ammeter which registers the discharge conducted from that accumulated voltage, heat measures the resistance which magnetism sets up against integration by compression into smaller volume, and cold measures its disintegration by expansion into larger volume.
Contraction of volume by integration of the same mass into lesser space is resisted by expansion pressure. Resistance to contraction heats by the opposition of the opposing force. Heating bodies approach each other and recede from cooling bodies. If this law of motion is well founded, then heating bodies and the attraction of gravitation must be related.
Expansion of volume by disintegration into greater space is assisted by the expulsive force of contraction pressure. Expanding bodies recede from expanding and from contracting bodies. If this law of motion is well founded then cooling bodies, expanding bodies, and the repulsion of radiation must be related.
Expanding bodies cool. Expansion of volume repels (dispersion). Cooling bodies recede from cooling and from heating bodies. Expanding bodies seek lower pressure equilibriums. Cooling bodies contract. Contracting bodies appear to attract. Contracting bodies seek high pressure equilibriums. To the process of contraction is due the illusion of attraction. Low pressure points between masses are drawn closer to their masses. Naturally the mass follows the new pressure gradients and draw closer together.
Contraction of volume is Nature's process of integration. Proximity of high pressure points in solids increases the potential of their fields and thus compacts their low pressure pivotal points against a terrific resistance for it must be remembered that all oppositely polarized nuclei desire extension and exert their utmost to put distance between them. This effect can be best observed in a bar magnet which will extend its opposed poles to infinity if given the slightest chance either by contact or by induction across a gap. In the face of this fact science claims that positive and negative attract. If they do attract why are not the opposed poles together in the middle of the bar? Science is deceived by an illusion. The north pole of a bar magnet will destroy itself and the south pole of another piece of polarized metal in order to extend itself to the other end of the added metal. The south pole will do likewise to the added north. (See Part 10)
Approaching bodies mutually heat. Heating bodies charge. Charging bodies raise potential. If this law is well founded then heat, charging bodies and the attraction of gravitation must be related. Also positive charge must attract positive charge.
Heating bodies radiate. Radiating bodies repel all other bodies (dispersion). Receding bodies mutually cool. Radiation cools both the radiating body and its emanation.
Cooling bodies discharge. Discharging bodies lower potential. If this law is well founded then cold, discharging bodies and the repulsion of radiation (dispersion) must be related. Also negative discharge must repel both negative discharge and positive charge.
Discharging bodies contract and contracting bodies heat. The re-heating of degenerating bodies by contraction is nature's process of regeneration. Heat emanates from heated bodies. Radiation lowers pressure and potential of radiating and ejected bodies and their emanations. Radiating and radiated bodies seek equilibrium positions in lower pressure zones appropriate to their lowered potentials. Radiation of heat is nature's process of solidifying integrated substances of cooling bodies into locked potential positions. Radiation expands and the consequent regeneration condenses, or freezes, the emanations expelled from radiating bodies. It also cools the radiating body, thus regenerating it also.
Expansion disintegrates. Disintegration is Nature's process of redistribution. Disintegration freezes radiating and radiated bodies. Freezing is Nature's process of effecting rigidity in radiating bodies and beginning the repetition of the same process in emanated bodies. Radiation is discharge. One could continue indefinitely to set down these effects of motion and name each pair of opposite effects as more inductive or conductive effects. The conclusion to be drawn from the foregoing is that the universe of motion is simple, orderly and symmetrical instead of complex, disorderly and distorted.
Einstein's Gravitational Hypothesis
ONE of our most celebrated physicists has advanced the idea that gravitation is not a force of Nature, but a property of space-time. This is a grave error which should be corrected at this time lest it complex our already too-complex thinking in respect to effects of motion. In the first instance, it is illogical to conceive of motion without force, or of the power to appear to attract without a force back of that power. In the second instance, it is illogical to conceive that the effects of a cause could be due to other effects of a cause without eventually getting back to the underlying cause. Effects become causes of other things but effects cannot become the cause of their own existence nor can they subtract themselves from their cause.
Space-time are effects of force; they are dimensions of force; just as a foot is the dimension traveled by force, or as a pound is the dimension of a substance accumulated by force, or as a temperature is the measure of a resistance generated by force. Time is merely the measure of intervals between sequences of events, which in themselves could not be unless force acted to cause those intervals.
And what is space? Is it anything other than a concept? Without light and two objects in the universe, could there be such a thing as space? If the universe were homogeneous and lightless, could there be such a thing as distance? Could there be such a thing as space, or time, or temperature, or density or other dimension unless there were two things plus light in the universe to measure from, to compare to, or to relate to?
All dimensions of force are illusions of motion, which in itself is an illusion of force. Without force dimensions have no existence other than as a concept. In concept, dimensions have an appearance of existence through the illusions of force which is their cause. This is, however, another and an extensive subject in which the question of infinity, beginning and ending, are considered. In illustrating his point, Einstein cited a hypothetical condition which does not parallel the effect of gravitation in a mass, and, therefore, the conclusion cannot apply. We hereby quote an abbreviated resume of Einstein's hypothesis and conclusion as written by J. Arthur Thomson in The Outline of Science.
"Einstein thinks that gravity is not, as Newton held, a force, but a property of space. That all the effects of gravity may exist where there is no attraction is best shown by his own striking illustration. Imagine a chamber, like that of the projectile in Jules Verne's story, alone and motionless in space. A passenger there-in will have no weight; his feet will not press downward on the floor. If he throws a ball into the air it will rise to the roof and remain there; there is no force of attraction to bring it down again. A weight hanging on a spring-balance will not stretch the spring. Now suppose that the chamber begins to move with a velocity which is continually increasing at the same rate as that of a body falling on the earth. The floor will press upward against the passenger's feet; it will catch up the ball, which will appear to be falling; the balance, drawn upwards against the inertia of the weight, will measure its amount precisely. There is no possible experiment which the passenger can make which will show him whether the projectile is moving with an accelerated motion or whether it is at rest, as we imagine we are, on the surface of an attracting body. This last, indeed, is what he will imagine. But he may be under a complete illusion and so may we."
This is Einstein's "Theory of Equivalence." It shows that gravitation may have more than one explanation. And this leads us to his own explanation, which is an altogether new one. Newton thought the apple fell because the earth exerts upon it an attractive force. Einstein considers that it falls because, wherever there is matter, space itself is curved, just as the space we see in a very slightly concave mirror, where there are no straight lines at all, and where, if any body is in motion, it must move along a curve. Suppose a man in a closed room discovers that a marble placed anywhere against a wall rolls towards a hassock in the center of the room, it will appear to him that the hassock is attracting it. Yet the fact may be that the floor is slightly concave, like a very shallow basin, and the hassock has no connection whatsoever with the motion of the marble. Just in the same way the earth may have no direct connection with the falling of the apple, though it seems to us to be the cause of it.
We are asked to believe that space is curved, that all things moving through it move in curves - all things including light. Einstein's theory asserts that the actual reality which underlies all the manifestations we experience in the physical universe are a blend of time, space and matter. This trinity is comprised in one actual reality. All bodies move through space-time, and they move in the straightest possible tracks. Motion is merely a simultaneous change of position in space and time. Einstein's theory explains gravitation as distortion of the world of space-time due to the presence of material objects. He does not explain how or why a body can distort space-time; the theory explains gravity, not as a force of nature, but as a property of space-time.
On Einstein's view of gravitation, the earth moves in an elliptical path around the sun, not because a force is acting on it, but because the world of space-time is so disturbed by the presence of the sun that the path of least time through space is the elliptical path observed. There is, therefore, no need to introduce any idea of "force" of gravitation. The more matter is present, the more space is curved. And so it happens that the light from a star just beyond the sun will come bending round it, like a train round a railway curve, and fall upon our eyes or cameras (that is, when the sun's glare is shut out during an eclipse) and we can see or photograph the star. It will appear to be shifted from its true position - how far shifted, Einstein has worked out. At the last eclipse the stars appeared where he had predicted.
The projectile described above is set in motion and effects are described as taking place within it which simulate the effect of gravitation. Let us question this and see if they do. If men and objects were on the underneath side of this projectile floating weightlessly around it, would they also press closely to it, or by the same argument, would they not be left behind if the projectile were set in motion? Would not the force which pressed the objects within the projectile to its floor press the outer objects off? If, the projectile moved sideways, would the scales weigh the same and would the man not be pressed sideways against the walls?
Our planet moves in a circular orbit and rotates upon its axis, yet water is not spilled from a dish, nor is weight changed, nor is man inconvenienced, nor does the ball on the ground roll because of either of these two motions. Consider the effect within that projectile if the line of force (is) curved, and if the projectile rotated upon its axis. The man within it would have to keep running perpetually or else be pressed first against one side then against the top, at which position he would be on his head. The ball would roll around continually, the dish of water would empty itself, and the scales would change continually if fastened down, but if not it would follow the ball on its circuitous journey. Let us consider what would happen on the outside of the projectile. Anything on the outside would be swept off except that which happened to be in the line of direction. If the projectile should begin to rotate the last possibility of any object remaining upon it would pass.
The conclusion arrived at by Einstein that force is not necessary in consideration of the effect of gravitation is illogical, because gravitation is force, or rather one half of the universal force. On the contrary, gravitation is the cause of motion in one direction, of which there are two, and radiation, the other half, is the cause of motion in the opposite direction. Motion itself is an effect of the decision of the One Force to divide itself into two and run around in circles in order that a physical universe of illusions which we call forms and dimensions would appear to come into existence.
It must be constantly borne in mind, in the consideration of all effects of motion, that the attractive power of gravitation and the repulsive power of radiation are non-dimensional. They require no time to act nor are they measurable in any other dimension for they are primary cause. Their effects alone are measurable, and they but appear to have dimension through motion. Motion is therefore an effect of force and could not have the appearance of existence as the father of illusions without the non-dimensional Mind Force back of it which we can plainly see the effects of in those illusions which motion sets up. Even though we cannot see nor measure this Mind Force we know where its two eyes and their extensions are located in space and in masses. Nothing in the universe escapes their observation nor their enforcement of universal law.
Now let us compare a planet without motion to this projectile without motion. Even though the planet stood still, the men and other objects on it would still be drawn to its center from every direction. Scales would weigh and all things would act equally all around the planet, in accordance with the pull inward and the thrust outward from the center. Let us again assume for comparison the true condition of the planet in motion. The people and objects in the line of direction of motion are not the only ones who feel their feet pressing on the planet, or their masses weighing themselves in the scales. Everybody and everything, even that opposed to the direction of motion feel equal pressure and equal weight and equal relation to the planet.
If conclusions are to be right conclusions, the premises must be right premises. This projectile illustration is a wrong premise, therefore, the conclusion must be wrong.
Let us now take up the illustration of the marble and the hassock. Here is another wrong premise. The curved floor would cause the marble to run toward the bottom of the hassock, but it would not run up hill if the floor were curved over the top of the hassock. The marble would not run up the curve, as it should to make the illustration a parallel, for space is curved in every direction, not alone in one.
Einstein "does not explain how or why a body can distort space-time." The answer is simple. Space-time is not distorted. It is perfectly symmetrical. It merely appears to be distorted. In the symmetry of the sphere, we have perfection. In the symmetry of many spheres, we have a supposed distortion of symmetry due to the time dimension of force which Nature takes to form her spheres and oblate them back again into nebulosity. During this process, her apparent distortions are exactly balanced by equal opposite apparent distortions which, in the sum total, is perfect symmetry.
Any unbalanced unit of a design is balanced into perfect symmetry of bilateral design by its repetition in a mirror held in any relation to it whatsoever. Every artist knows that the sum total of two equal and opposite distortions equals symmetry. Also he knows that the greater the number and complexity of any apparent distortions, such as the reflections of any casually placed lines, or objects of many shapes, textures and colors in a hexagonal mirror, the greater is the appearance of symmetry.
Nature's apparent distortions are due to the varying pressures of her varying densities. There are not two laws for the same principles, so let us see why light bends around a mass, instead of how.
Let us take the familiar illustration of the stone in the pool where, when the pool is filled with water, the man is able to see the stone which he could not see when the pool was empty (refraction).
As density increases, we know that pressure increases. As all potential resists passage through it with a strength which varies with its voltage pressure or density, and as a liquid is a more dense high potential than the air, the water bends the light which reflects the image of the stone to the surface of the pool in a violent curve, then from there to the man's eyes in an immeasurably slight curve.
The man does not actually see the stone, nor the position where the stone lies. He sees only its projected image and its position in Nature's mirror.
Illustrating the perfect symmetry of natural apparent distortions. At E the stone and its position are seen in their true relation while at A, B, C, D, F, G and H the observer sees both stone and its position reflected in the curved planes of higher potential.
Figure 15 illustrates the symmetry of apparent distortion when balanced by its equal opposite. A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H and I represent changed positions of the observer. Note the symmetrically changed positions of the reflected images. Note also the symmetry of the apparent tidal distortions in Figure 10.
The universe cannot be anything else than a symmetrical one for all effects of motion are based on the wave and all forms of motion are based on the sphere. The sphere and the wave represent absolute symmetry and in their perfection there is no distortion. If he actually saw the stone, then Nature would be distorted because a position or an object appearing to be where we know it is not, would be a distortion.
In the same sense, when we see a star which is actually behind the sun, it is only the mirrored image of it reflecting itself in Nature's curved mirror of heavier and more dense gradient of pressure near the sun. The supposed distortion is as much an illusion of motion as the mirrored reflection of the object around a corner is an illusion. We think we see the sun after it has actually set. It is not the sun itself. It is the image of the sun, reflected in the curved mirror of the earth's higher potential exactly as an object is reflected around the corner.
In the example relating to the star, there is, other than density, one factor which alters the mathematical relations of objects without altering the principle in the slightest. Spiral striations of pressures, such as the series of outer layers of higher pressures which surround a great body like a planet or sun, are curved mirrors of mathematically calculable ability to simulate distortions, whereas in small objects the striations of dense masses of small volume are not calculable.
Every mass in the universe is encircled by striation mirrors which not only reflect light but sound and all other potentials. We can explain our local refraction problems geometrically but our celestial ones are more susceptible to mathematical calculations. The "Heaviside layers" around this planet and the photosphere, chromosphere and reversing layer around the sun are concentrically parallel to those masses. These layers have division walls of greater densities than that of the spaces between them. Farther out from the sun are still other layers of gradually lessening pressure densities all of which reflect the light exactly as a bent mirror would convey the images of objects or light around a corner.
Let us bear in mind, however, it is but the images which are conveyed around the corner and not the objects themselves. See Standing Waves
If one could clear away from it the high potential which surrounds a great mass just as one can empty a tank of its water, the star behind the sun could not be seen. It could not mirror itself in emptiness. Light is a substance. It has mass. Atmosphere is a substance exactly as water is a substance though less dense. A stick plunged into water appears to break suddenly at the surface, but light penetrating the atmosphere appears to bend gradually as the potential rises. Now, we know that the stick does not actually break because we are as familiar with that illusion as we are with the illusions of perspective. It only appears to break.
Why then do we not know that the light of a hidden star only appears to bend and does not actually? If we cannot see the star itself but only its image, it necessarily follows that we do not see the light of the star. Again we are deceived by the mirage of the reflected image of light and not the actual light. Just as the end of a stick which would be visible in air, could be hidden under a lily-pad in water, so does the star, hiding behind the sun, appear to be at the end of a beam of light which is apparently as straight as the stick in the water is. As a matter of fact, we never see anything in its true position. Symmetry demands apparent distortion in all things.
It must be borne in mind that always in a universe of motion all effects of motion are illusions which will always deceive us unless we trace their causes back to the two directions of the divided One Force.
The following are a few examples of effects of motion which have caused us to draw wrong conclusions because of the evidence of our eyes.
In an electrolyte solution, oxygen, a negative gas, is found at the positive pole, and hydrogen, a positive gas, is found at the negative pole. The evidence of one's eyes leads one to the conclusion that opposite charges attract each other.
Let us review the facts. Water is, admittedly, a depolarized stable compound in which the identities of the separate elements have been lost. Hydrogen and oxygen, unstable elements admittedly, do not exist in water as hydrogen and oxygen. They have given up their separate properties of plus equilibrium and minus equilibrium in order to become stabilized. Water is the result of the neutralization of the positive gas hydrogen and the negative gas oxygen which have as effectively short-circuited each other into an equilibrium as a heavy wire touching the poles of a storage battery short-circuits it into an equilibrium. When an electric current is passed through this equilibrium, a contractive action takes place in the positive pole and an expansive action in the negative pole. This has the effect in electric action that a pump would have if placed between two tanks of air of equal pressure to draw the air out of one to force it into the other.
The active force proceeds in one direction and the reactive force in the other. The water is polarized. This means that every atom in equilibrium becomes opposed. And as this pumping process takes place the water ceases to be water. The poles become so arranged that they attract and repel each other in growing preponderances. The result is that the two unstable units which, when united into one are water, are now, when separated into two, hydrogen and oxygen.
This relation of increasing preponderances in accordance with the intensity of the charge is what we know as the stored energy of the battery, which has the ability to do work. In other words, the stable condition has become unstable. The degree of instability generated is the degree of charge in the battery. Its intensity is the measure of its desire for equilibrium as expressed in pressure. The electric oscillations of the charging current have imparted electric oscillations to the battery poles through the medium of the electrolyte.
The positive pole draws the positive charge out of every atom of the water near it, leaving the water in a negative condition, a minus unstable condition, and the pole in a plus or positive condition. It is then oxygen, a mass of minus equilibrium potential energy.
The water near the negative pole, on the contrary, loses its stability through attracting the positive charge pumped from the negative pole thus putting the water in a plus condition and the pole in a minus condition. It is then hydrogen, a mass of plus potential energy. Hydrogen has not been attracted to the negative pole, for there was no hydrogen there to be thus "attracted." For the same reason oxygen has not been "attracted" to the positive pole. Both of these gases were "manufactured" at these positions by becoming polarized, and when the process was finished, they were thrust aside so that more water could come into position to be pumped apart into its component parts by polarization.
It seems never to have occurred to anybody that if like charges repel each other all substance would disassociate, for each like part would repel each like part. It is well known that each part of any decomposing compound will attract each like part to itself, like atom to like atom and like substance to like substance. All like substances are similarly "charged," or, more properly speaking, similarly polarized.
It is claimed that "affinities" are attracted toward each other with varying intensities. Some come together with explosive violence. All "affinities" are polarized positive and negative opposites. This fact is seemingly good evidence that "opposite charges attract each other." What always happens when "affinities" meet? Is there anything left of either element? Has there been a friendly meeting of amiable companions or a battle to the death?
Sodium and chlorine, for example, meet. We can find neither present after the meeting. Nothing is left of them, not even dead bodies. Their identities have been absolutely lost by their depolarization into a unity which is something other than sodium or chlorine. Even their crystallization changes to the cube which belongs to an equilibrium condition.
It is claimed that masses are not doubly charged, but that every mass carries either a positive or negative charge, one or the other, fully and inseparably. The commonly accepted explanation of the polarized condition of a bar magnet is that the particles which make up the atoms of iron arrange themselves in such a manner that their negative and their positive parts come together in the middle of the bar and thus neutralize each other. At the ends of the bar, however, they bunch their respective separate parts together to concentrate their power.
This is rather a gross double inconsistency. In the first place, like charges could not concentrate under the law as immediately take place if any mobilization of that sort began. In the second place, particles which arranged their negative and positive parts in any form must have both parts to arrange. This is inconsistent because such a condition of double charge is denied. Nature does not divide her positive and negative "parts" of a mass into halves of it, but permeates the whole with both forces passing each other in opposite directions.
It is claimed that light striking a metal plate will cause it to lose negative electrons, thus leaving the plate positively charged. The theory is that its equilibrium has been upset by the loss of some negative electrons, leaving it with a surplus of positive ones. How can a positively charged plate emit negative electrons if one charge only is within the plate? Both charges must be present in order to accomplish this.
Consider this for a moment in its effect in the photo-electric cell. A metal plate is placed in such a position that light falls on it. Light admittedly has weight. One cannot add weight to a mass without lifting its potential. The light of the sun strikes the earth. It has weight and charges the earth, lifting its potential. The effect of this charge of the planet is registered in heat. The measure of heat is the measure of resistance to such charging. Light, registered as heat, striking the planet must radiate part of that which has been generated. Radiative emanations are thrown off from the planet just as negative electrons are radiated from the photo-electric cell, or from the cathode in a radio tube. The heat radiates. What is the difference in principle whether light strikes the planet or a metal plate? None. Potential, or weight, has been added to it. The metal plate is charged and heated. Radiation takes place because that which is generated must be degenerated.
There is no difference between that effect and the added heat in a radiator. Both must give off heat. The metal plate has not lost anything. It has gained something. It has become plus, or positive, by the added weight of light, not because it was deprived of anything. It has gained much and given off part of it, only part of it though, for it has been proven that plates so charged emit electrons for a long time after the source of charging has been withdrawn, which proves that they retain part of their added charges for a long time. It is just like a radiator cooling.
Second consideration of the same effect.
Negative electrons are supposed to be ejected from the metal plate and strike the opposite plate as negative electrons. Consider the radiant energy of the sun which leaves it as the same kind of negative electrons. We know that they have weight and we know that the potential of the planet is lifted by their impact. And yet we say that they are negative electrons. They were preponderantly negative electrons in relation to the sun from which they arose as hot particles expanding and cooling as they arose, but they are preponderantly positive in relation to this planet upon which they fall as cold things contracting and heating as they fall.
Discharging corpuscles are preponderantly negative and charging corpuscles are preponderantly positive. All electrons change their preponderances at the low pressure plane between cathode and anode plates. All electrons regenerate at the grid and anode where they either pass an area of high potential or impact against one. All variations of energy are recorded as they sequentially expand and contract in tune with the varying frequencies carried there in the conducting current. During this recording process each electron changes its preponderance from positive to negative and back again many thousands of times as it expands and contracts to record variations of potential by its pulsations.
Let us consider this question in relation to light. We know that light leaves the sun hot and arrives here hot. Across the vast intervening space of indescribable cold, these degenerating corpuscles "travelâ€ (according to our theory) in order to reach here. Corpuscles expand as they arise to areas of low potential. As they expand they cool. In the cold reaches of space, the same "heat energy" is still in them but is expanded into large volume. When they pass the low pressure zone between the sun and the earth, they contract. Contraction into smaller volume heats. Contraction does not add more heat as one supposes when one says "contraction heats." See Cycle of Temperature
It merely concentrates the same quantum of heat into smaller volume. Therefore, when very small regenerated corpuscles of light arrive here on their waves, the heat that they have always had and never parted with during the long journey, is still with them unchanged in quantum. The heat has been regenerated by condensation exactly as the degenerating human voice is regenerated ten thousand miles away by condensation. The voice has not been silenced during the journey. It has merely expanded beyond our perception. It has exchanged its positive dimension for its negative one.
In the same manner heat has not ceased to be heat in the cold reaches of space. It has merely expanded beyond our perception of it as heat by exchanging to its other two way dimension, cold. When its diverging lines, in respect to the sun, bend around to converging lines, in respect to the planet, the negative discharging "electrons" become positive charging "protons." See Principle of Regeneration
Sound has mass just as light has mass. All mass is light. Solid matter like a bar of iron is frozen light. Bring it to the white heat of incandescence, and it is then as much light as the sun is light. One may photograph by its light as well as by the sun's light.
Observe that the division of a single cell is accompanied by a churning oscillation which exactly resembles the pumping of it apart into two parts by two opposing forces. It splits into two parts when the inward pull and outward thrust have developed their male and female preponderance to an equilibrium point. During this process of polarization, the cell is either male or female in preponderance, but when they split, they are both equal or bisexuals. Depolarization has for the moment conquered.
The process repeats itself continually and the speed with which each separate offshoot multiplies, plus the fatigue and death of early generations of cells at different intervals determines the excess of either male or female cells, which, in its turn, determines not only the sex but the preponderance of sex.
6. Static or Frictional Electricity
By "charging" two pith balls negatively or positively they supposedly repel each other. Pith balls cannot be charged in such a manner. Pith balls are polarized by a current just as a planet is. Naturally, a current approaching two pith balls will charge them alike. Their north and south poles will coincide. To prove that pith balls are polarized exactly as planets are polarized cut some long pieces of pith from a sumac tree. They will then act exactly as polarized needles or bar magnets of steel will act. "Charge" them by two opposed currents and they will be oppositely polarized. They will then do what two needles will do if you charge both in the same coil and turn one upside down.
Polarization is a condition precedent to motion. Nothing can appear to attract or repel which has not simultaneously become polarized. Pith balls, needles, planets or any other things in Nature are as inert in their actions toward each other as are the two poles of a dead storage battery. For a storage battery or a pith ball to perform work it must first develop opposition to its equilibrium condition by becoming "charged," which is the equivalent for developing live opposed poles. So-called static, or frictional, Electricity is claimed to be a different kind of Electricity than dynamic electricity. There is only one kind of electricity. (underline added)
7. Bar Magnet
It is said that the north pole of a bar magnet attracts the south pole of another bar magnet, or of a compass needle. It does appear to do so, but only to destroy it. The north of the first bar is no longer north nor is the south any longer south. North has extended itself to join the north of the second bar and the south of the second bar has extended itself to join the south of the first one. In the case of a compass needle, the polarization will be reversed if the current in the bar is stronger than that of the permanent magnet of the compass needle.
If positive and negative attract each other, why do they get as far away from each other as they can in a bar magnet? Why are they not together in the middle? In a bar magnet, every point back of north is south and every point back of south is north. Cut it in a million parts and one will find this true, but in every instance these opposed charges will get away from each other as far as they can.
8. The Electroscope Fallacy
Two strips of gold leaf bound together at the top will separate when supposedly positively "charged" and collapse when supposedly negatively "charged." The answer is simple. They are not oppositely "charged" on the two occasions. Both ends become similarly polarized. The bottom ends separate but the upper ones cannot for they are tied together. Tie two needles together at either end and they will do likewise. When the gold leaves collapse it is because they are depolarized by an equilibrium and not because the opposite "charge" has been substituted.
To prove this, superimpose several gold leaves upon a very thin strip of vellum. Then hang both gold leaf vellum strips by threads, leaving both ends free instead of one. Now approach it with ebonite, or glass rods, or scaling wax, and they will spread apart. Hang one vellum strip in such a manner that it can be reversed by a pendant thread. Reverse these while the charge lasts and they will come together.
Motion of any nature whatsoever in this universe is impossible without an accompanying polarization. Try it by rubbing a bar of ebonite vigorously. Hold the ebonite in the middle, not at the end, and touch the top of the electroscope. The leaves will, of course, separate because both of the lower ends are either positive or negative. Pass the rod slowly along over the knob and they will collapse and then open again when equilibrium and either opposite signs alternately pass the knob. In an ebonite or glass rod, there are often four or more striations of polarization pressures which indicate loops of force at several points instead of one at each end. A badly polarized bar of steel will often be similarly striated.
Why do two needles (or pith balls) appear to repel each other when their poles are similarly placed? The following diagram will answer the question.
Note that an insulating field of flux is developed around each polarized mass to protect it from contact with any other similarly polarized mass. This field is an actual flow of current in which the pressure of the flow is as real as the pressure of a flow of water or current of air. By placing two such masses side by side the separate flows of the two fields of pressure will hold each other apart. If you reverse either the needles or pith balls, there is but one direction or one flow in a continuing circle around the field.
Naturally the desire for equilibrium through attempted depolarization will shorten the electric line of opposition in the direction of its length and thus draw south and north together bent on mutual destruction just as chemical affinities depolarize each other by contact. One becomes an extension of the other just as a piece of polarized steel added to another one depolarizes both at the point of contact and extends their signs to opposite ends of the bar. If one polarized pith ball comes into contact with another, this is what happens.
Comets tails always point away from the sun. This fact led to the theory of light repulsion.
The sun is supposed to so attract all planets that they would fall into it if it were not for that saving "initial impetus."
The sun is light. How is it that the sun attracts and light repels, when both are identical? Let us look for a more simple and logical answer in pressure gradient.
The low pressure of the comet's emanations "rises" into the pressure gradient of ever-lowering potential the greater the distance from the sun.
The comet's tail and the lozenge ionizing rapidly in water are identical effects, even to the slight explosive burst of light in the direction of the sun as compared with the ionization downward in the water of a portion of the lozenge before curving upward.
Regarding the Universal One
When The Universal One was published it was generally condemned because it was based on the continuous atom of a continuing universe of all effects of motion expressing themselves in repetitive cycles, the wave as the basis of all motion, the corpuscle and all matter as merely the records or dimensions of motion and the unity of force. Many of those who condemned its ideas have since accepted them when proposed by scientists, who, although, in announcing these ideas have made no reference to The Universal One.
Prof. Albert Einstein recently made the most revolutionary of modern scientific statements to the effect that the electric and gravitational field were unity. This discovery claimed by Prof. Einstein was copyrighted by me throughout the world three years before Einstein announced it. The following extracts from my book speak for themselves. The entire book is interspersed with the idea that Electricity and the attraction of gravity is one swing of the cosmic pendulum and magnetism and the repulsion of radiation (which are also unity), is the opposite swing.
It seems incredible to me that one half of the truth should have been recognized without having simultaneously recognized the other half, especially, as no effect of Nature stands alone without its opposite effect. Opposition is Nature's greatest and most conspicuous attribute. Repetitiveness comes next in importance. Attraction must be opposed by repulsion. And each of these must meet with resistance, which is Nature's repetitive principle. Without this trinity the universe, as we know it, could not be.
The following is a graphic description of Nature's process in the creation of that which we call matter.
"All mass is accumulated centripetally by the genero-active, gravitative, attractive power of Electricity, and is dissipated centrifugally by the radioactive repelling power of magnetism."
"The contracting electric centripetal stream is the condition of motion necessary to produce that effect of motion which we call the attraction of gravitation."
"The expanding, magnetic, centrifugal stream is the condition of motion necessary to produce that effect of motion which we call the repulsion of radiation."
"The electric stream and the magnetic stream are one. They are but traveling in different directions."
The key to all opposite effects of motion is contained in the following statement:
"The electro-positive force of the attraction of gravitation pulls inward from within; and the electro-negative force of the repulsion of radiation pushes outward from within."
There are many specific statements and definitions such as the following:
Chart opposite page 58.
"Gravitation is the desire of Electricity to integrate into the appearance of form. Radiation is the desire of magnetism to disintegrate into the disappearance of form."
"This increasing intensity of opposition between the gravitative desire of Electricity to assemble the universe into the appearance of form by its generative force of attraction, and the radiative desire of magnetism to disassemble into the disappearance of form is the cosmic principle of creation."
Chart opposite Page 59.
"The creating universe of matter appears through the centripetal contractive, endothermic, positive charging, (electric) force of gravitation which attracts, disappears through the centrifugal, expansive (magnetic) radioactive, exothermic, discharging, negative force of radiation which repels, and reappears through a union of both forces by regenerative impact in inertia."
"Gravitation is the generative force of increasing potential and the regenerative force of decreasing potential."
"Gravitation is the power within the electric force of action to attract the electric force of action."
"Gravitation is the contractive power within Electricity to divert the universal constant of energy into centripetal vortices of closing spirals of increasing speed, thereby attracting similar states of motion into an accumulation of mass, the pressure of which increases toward its center."
"Gravitation is an expression of the power of Electricity to accumulate by induction and, by so doing, to force magnetism to increase its resistance to that accumulation."
"Gravitation is the (electric) inductive force."
"Lightning seeking its own potential, and an apple falling to the ground, are effects of exactly the same cause. Gravitation is the cause of each."
The following refers to the generally accepted belief that Electricity and gravitation were, when the book was written, considered to be two separate disconnected effects of motion.
"The supposition that atomic motion is an electrical effect, and that the atoms of the elements are thereby exempted from obeying the laws of gravitation, misleads the chemist."
"Modern science recognizes the varying power of substance to attract and to repel in that effect termed electromotive force, but its basic cause is presumed to be electrical. Electricity and gravitation are not yet recognized as identical expressions of the same force."
"Science considers the attraction of gravitation of the solar system as an entirely different effect from the effect of motion within an atomic system."
"atomic motion is presumed to be non-subject to the laws of gravitation."
"Science names one 'gravitation,' and the other an 'electrical effect.' Both â€˜effects' are the same."
"Also are both 'effects' born of the same conditions."
"If the movements of planets and satellites are 'effects of gravitation' and the same 'effects' in smaller mass are 'electrical effects,' why do smaller masses exactly follow the laws of the larger masses?"
"The light units of an atom seem independent of the earth's gravitative center, but actually they are not. All are revolving true to the planes of their respective potentials."
"The moons of Jupiter do exactly the same thing in respect to the solar gravitative center of this system, yet they are not considered an 'electrical effect'."
"They fall toward the sun and away from it with the same apparent disregard that light units of a system evidence in respect to other masses outside their own systems."
"Even their accelerations and decelerations are effected by causes other than whether they are moving toward the sun or away from it."
"All effects of motion are gravitational and radiational effects. Also they are electric and magnetic effects just as they are likewise chemical effects."
"All motion is oscillatory, swinging in sequence between two apparently opposing forces, gravitation and repulsion, which are respectively electric and magnetic."
Even more specific reference to the unity of gravitation and Electricity can be found in the following three paragraphs:
"All effects of gravitation are electric effects, and all effects of radiation are magnetic effects."
"All effects of motion are electro-magnetic effects."
"All mass has a series of gravitative centers toward which it evidences its allegiance in the order of its (electric) potential relations."
Here again are paragraphs which specifically set forth the unity of Electricity and gravitation with the generative force of creation, thus identifying resistance and generation as the step-up transformation process which gravitation employs to meet its ends:
"Electricity is the generative force."
"To generate means to decelerate (resist) an established motion in order that it may be accumulated. Magnetism is the degenerative force."
"Resistance to either opposite force results in the regeneration of the magnetic force and the greater generative power of the electro-gravitative force.â€
"Generation or regeneration is an effect of gravitation. An impact of radiative energy against any lower octave of integration will set up the necessary resistance to the radiative energy to regenerate it into its original form."
"The action impulse and the reaction impulse ... are alternating between the apparent opposites known as generation and radiation."
"Generation and radiation are opposites. Generation is the attractive, gravitative positive, electric force, and radiation is the repulsive, emanative, negative, magnetic force."
"Induction is an effect of generation or regenerate."
"If this is true, then induction must be related to the attraction of gravitation and conduction to the repulsion of radiation."
By giving due consideration to the swing of electromagnetic oscillations between these two opposite expressions of one force, the very principle of creation is made more clear:
"Creation is merely a swing of the cosmic pendulum from inertia,4 through energy, and back again to inertia,4 forever and forever. It is but a series of opposing pulsations of action and reaction, integration and disintegration, gravitation and radiation, appearance and disappearance.â€
"The force of attraction, which is electric and the force of repulsion, which is magnetic, are both opposite pressure dimensions, and they must change their relations as other dimensions change."
"All mass is either charging, in which case it is flowing in an electric stream of centripetal preponderance, or it is discharging, in which case it is flowing in a magnetic stream of centrifugal preponderance."
"An electric stream always flows spirally toward the gravitative center of the mass, or system, or wave of systems."
"Attraction and repulsion are merely apparent effects of electric action and magnetic reaction."
"One (electricity) is an effect of gravitation, the other (magnetism) of radiation."
"Electricity is the basis of the atom."
"The attraction of gravitation, in favoring the generation of energy, is enabling Electricity to accumulate as mass."
"All mass, (electricity) consists of energy accumulated by the attraction of gravitation into the appearance of form."
"All form is held together, more or less closely, by the relative force of gravitation which accompanies mass of various dimensions and relations."
"The electric stream displaces substance by accumulating (gravitationally) the universal constant, under increasingly higher pressure equilibriums, into relatively solid masses, and the magnetic stream diffuses that solidity into tenuity by releasing those high pressures."
"Affinity, in the chemical sense, and attraction, in the electrical sense, are analogous. Both are effects of gravitation."
1. The laws printed in this thesis are selected from a series of about two hundred which were printed in The Universal One. Such a radically new system of motion required new laws to conform to its new principles.
2. Revised from the original.
3. See The Universal One for its extended principles.
4. This term has been used in the sense of inertness, or equilibrium. In all later writings it has been corrected to conform to the meaning conveyed in scientific terminology.