This article has been extensively investigated here: Polar Interchange - Table of Contents
The Russell Genero-Radiative Concept:
The Cyclic Theory of Continuous Motion
The purpose of this thesis is to demonstrate that the planets and satellites of a system would not fall into their primaries if their motion were stayed by some giant hand.
The experiment which illustrates this text was performed for the purpose of proving that "initial impetus" has no relation whatever to orbital revolution. It also proves that the mathematical laws for falling bodies are as applicable to the orbit of a body which is floating in a pressure gradient appropriate to its potential as they are to a body which is falling just fast enough to keep it in the same relative distance from its primary.
The experiment is also intended to demonstrate that the mythical "initial impulse" which every mass in every kind of a system supposedly acquired from some unknown and unexplained source is in fact obtained from its primary and corresponds exactly to the loops of force which form in ever-widening striations of ever-decelerating speed (as their distance from their center increases) around a wire through which a current is passing, or to the striations of ionizing gases in a partially evacuated tube through which a high frequency current is passing, or to such spiral nebulae as the Canes Venatici, Ursa Major, Perseus and Andromeda whirlpools through which a spatial cosmic current is passing. This thesis and experiment are also intended to prove that the commonly accepted law that like charges repel and opposite charges attract is an inconsistent and flagrant error.
I contend that Electricity and gravitation are one, also that magnetism and radiation are one, and that both of these forces make up the two opposing forces evident in every effect of motion. I also contend that these two opposing forces are unity, or one, expressing themselves as opposing separate forces only as they travel in opposite directions, the centripetal direction of a closing spiral, in which all attributes are endothermic, and the centrifugal direction of an opening spiral, in which all attributes are exothermic.
I also contend that the electric force attracts, or contracts, or compresses, or condenses, or generates energy into solids of visible matter, while the magnetic force repels, or expands, or disintegrates, or rarefies, or degenerates energy into tenuous, invisible matter.
This belief of unity of force, expressed in a continuous cycle of integration following disintegration, of generation succeeding degeneration, of the visible lifting itself out of the invisible in forever repetitive cyclic intervals was published in 1926 in my book, The Universal One.
This thesis has been written to take up these points with additional observations based upon experiment.
The Solar Gravitational Experiment
A set of given relative conditions affecting the application of the forces of nature are not changed by changing the size of the objects which demonstrate those conditions so long as they remain relative. An atom and a solar system are governed by the same laws. There is no separate law for big mass which differs from the laws governing small mass. Until 1926 when The Universal One was published no one had protested the theory that the laws governing solar systems were different from those governing atoms. Science claimed that one was an electrical effect and the other a gravitational effect. However, Einstein has mathematically upheld the theory of the unity of gravitation and electricity.
For further demonstration I have made the following experiment: A miniature solar system was set up so that in every respect it conformed to the known conditions which govern the planets' motions in respect to their nucleus. A large and powerful permanent bar magnet was hung on a wire, with a little crank handle at the top. Other smaller ones of assorted sizes were hung on very long threads. The threads were long because the different speeds of their turning would otherwise soon twist them up. The small ones were hung on concentric key rings. The bar magnets were placed in positions relative to the positions of the planets in respect to the sun. As the planets' magnetic poles are approximately in a line with the sun's equator, so all bar magnets were placed in this relationship. All south poles were uppermost.
The result is as indicated by Figure 1 and Figure 2. Each bar magnet immediately found a comfortable position in space where it hung practically motionless, but "champing at the bit" like an impatient horse. The heaviest and most dense ones hung near the "sun" and the less dense ones, and less powerfully polarized even though larger, found positions far away. Little needles found positions near larger bars, as moons find positions near planets. Invisible eddies caused a restlessness which proved that some force was at work within the group demanding that something happen to make them contented.
There was one condition which was certain. None of them expressed the slightest desire to fall into the other. They were all actively polarized as all mass in nature is more or less polarized. As long as the respective poles remained in this relation the separate masses found potential positions proper to their own potentials and remained there. Each one pushed the others away from it and pulled them toward it as it oscillated impatiently back and forth out of true position.
I have always contended that there is one gravitative point where every freely moving body in space has no weight nor has it any pushing power or pulling power in respect to any other mass. No mass in the universe can keep such a position when it finds it, for the impetus of its motion in getting there always carries it past that point.
Also the point referred to is moving in unison with all other similar equilibrium points.
An additional reason for this constant motion is the fact that every mass is constantly changing its potential and is, therefore, always moving in the continuous effort to find a true potential position in space where it can be "comfortable." By "comfortable," I mean a position where the pushing and pulling of the various masses are equal. If the moon or any planet could be pushed out of its position it would then have weight in respect to its primary, but not otherwise.
To return to the experiment, when we turned the central bar, all the smaller ones followed the turning just as the planets turn around the sun. Just as Mercury, the very dense, hard planet near the sun, turns fast, so will the heavy, dense small bar turn fast around it. Just as the low potential, huge bulk of Jupiter revolves slowly so does the far distant large needle revolve slowly. If these bar magnets were delicately hung so that there were no resistance to the turning, each bar would also revolve on its axis. If any one was turned by its thread, any little one near it revolved around it exactly as our moon revolves around the earth. The constant change of position of these high pressure gravitative points which control the accumulation of mass around them, gives the appearance of mutual attraction and repulsion, but this effect is just an illusion of motion, for all freely moving bodies in space are in equilibrium vortex centers in respect to every other mass in the universe, and, therefore, are weightless in respect to them.
This experiment was repeated on a larger scale with spheres. A large solenoid was wound in the shape of a sphere to represent the sun and surrounded by spherical substances of varying densities perforated by permanent magnets of varying strengths. To more exactly represent the conditions of the solar system, the sun was tipped a little away from vertical, and the planets hung so that their entire lengths were just below the plane of the sun's equator, except the nearest and most dense one. It was then found that all of the rotating poles inclined as they do in the solar system. This experiment should convince one that bodies moving freely in space have no weight whatsoever in respect to each other. It should also convince one that the so-caIled "initial impetus" is derived purely from the interchange of potential which is constantly taking place in all mass. This interchange takes place in two orderly streams, each flowing in opposite directions, one inward and the other outward. It proves also that all masses are doubly charged, there being merely a preponderance of one charge or the other. We will later show that the locations of the so-called magnetic poles of all masses determine their positive or negative preponderance. The poles of all masses of negative preponderance are the reverse of the poles of positive preponderance.
Let us now take up in greater detail the principles which govern this effect of rotation and revolution of masses in equilibrium positions within a system.
The New Creed of New Thinking
I believe that the basic cause of motion is extremely simple, and easy to understand. I believe that the effects of motion are infinitely complex and extremely difficult to comprehend. I believe that anyone who thoroughly understands cause can also understand the complex effects of cause. I believe that the whole of this universe of so-called matter is being put together into relative solids and torn apart into liquids and gases by One Force divided in its pulsations so that it appears to be two opposing forces. These apparently two forces move in opposite directions against a resistance set up by each against the other, thus creating a minus equilibrium and a plus equilibrium which we know of as solids and as space surrounding solids. I believe that solids are assembled out of space by one oscillation of the force which pulls inward from within (syntropy), and that space consumes the solids by the other oscillation which pushes outward from within (entropy).
I believe that the reciprocation of these two opposing and repetitive effects constitutes a cycle of appearance and disappearance which we call "Creation." I believe that each of these forces resists the action of the other and in so doing gives to the two opposing sex forces the repetitive effect which makes this universe of motion a continuous cycle. I believe that the combined triad effect of the two opposing oscillations and resistance is registered in waves of varying dimensions which are the basis of all motion. I believe that the opposed workings of the two forces creates a polarized or unstable condition and that thing which we call energy is the effort exerted by each force to re-attain the stability of equilibrium through depolarization. I believe, therefore, that all motion is the result of setting up an endless series of high and low pressure conditions which are ever interchanging in their constant and useless attempts to equalize. This can never be accomplished so long as the One Force is a living, pulsing force.
* * * * *
It is very evident that the so-called solids of matter are condensed, or contracted, from larger volume into small volume by a force which pulls inward from within (syntropy). This force is exerted against a resistant force which pushes outward from within (entropy). That force which we call the attraction of gravitation corresponds to this force for it gathers large volume of little weight into small volume of great weight.
Electricity corresponds in every respect to this condensing force, for it tends to shorten a line in the direction of its length. Electricity also accumulates low potential into high potential by generating high amperage of low voltage pressure into low amperage of high voltage pressure. This step-up transformation process in electrical practice exactly corresponds to the accumulation of energy in solids by generation. The generation of energy from large area into small area is a condensing, contracting, compressing effect which exactly corresponds to all electrical and all gravitational effects. Planets, suns and solar systems, electrons, protons and atomic systems are the familiar results of this force which gathers energy into smaller volumes of dense masses.
Can we not reasonably and logically conclude that energy so compressed into closer integration is a plus of energy as compared with its environment from which it was condensed? If it is a plus force and if it was generated gravitatively by electric contraction, can we not reasonably classify it as a charging force? And can we not just as logically complete the analogy and identify this generating, electro-gravitational force which develops an ever-increasing pressure gradient in the direction of a common center, as an electro-positive force?
If the above conclusions from familiar, observed effects are logical, are we not now in a position to state that the one and only possible direction for any of these electro-gravitational effects is the direction of mutual attraction, which is toward a common center?
Observe that the arrows in Figure 3 all converge toward one common point toward which they are heading and at which they meet. We have considered the assembling force which steps up energy from the invisible universe by Nature's spirally-wound transformer which contracts its windings on a centripetal journey to high pressure centers, so we can see and feel it as a visible universe of solids.
Now let us consider the reverse process by means of which Nature's step down transformer releases that accumulated energy through the spiral windings which ever expand on the outward centrifugal journey from visibility and density to invisibility and tenuity. There can be no argument against the plainly evident fact that visible or condensed solids of matter disappear into invisible vapors, gases or ethers by a repellent or expansive force which pushes outward from within against a resistant force which pulls inward from within. That repellent force which we call radiation corresponds to this force, for it disintegrates solid, integrated matter which has been compressed into small volume, into large volume. The magnetic field of a generated force exactly corresponds in every respect to this expanding, tearing down attempt of Nature to disassemble her assembled solids.
What is a magnetic field? Is it not plain to see that it is the degeneration of a generated force which ever weakens as its distance from its source increases? If the electric oscillation of an electro-magnetic wave is the generative oscillation which increases in force toward its core, does it not follow that the magnetic oscillation must necessarily be the degenerative oscillation which repels? If this is so, then is it proper to name the field which surrounds a generating current, a magnetic field? Is it not as properly an electro-magnetic field as a wave is an electro-magnetic wave because it exerts force in two directions? And is not the electric oscillation of that field the one which pumps force with ever increasing acceleration toward the plus of high pressure and, conversely, is not the magnetic oscillation the one which pumps force with ever increasing deceleration in the opposite direction toward the minus of low pressure? And does not the ratio of deceleration and acceleration of these opposite effects exactly correspond to the acceleration and deceleration ratios of all gravitational and radiational effects?
Magnetism, then, instead of being the attractive force which its name implies, is that decelerative, repellent force which tends not only to lengthen a line in the direction of its length, but to expand and retard that line in every outward direction. If this is so, it necessarily follows that it is the opposite of the inductive force which hastens this time dimension of force by covering equal distances in less time. Magnetism dissipates high potential into low potential by degenerating high voltage pressure of low amperage into low voltage pressure of high amperage. This step down transformation process in electric practice exactly corresponds to the release of energy in mass by radiation. This degeneration of energy from small area into large area is a rarefying, evaporating, dissolving, expanding effect which exactly corresponds to all magnetic and all radiational effects.
Invisibility, vapors, gases, and the pressure gradient of space are the familiar results of this repellent force which always occupies the outside insulating position of non-solidity which surrounds solid masses as a protective environment of ever-lowering conductivity. Can we not reasonably and logically conclude that energy so rarefied by the expansion of radiation is a minus force as compared with the condensed mass which it surrounds? And can we not just as logically complete the analogy and identify this degenerating magneto-radiational discharging force which evidences an ever weakening pressure gradient as an electro-negative (or, more properly, a magneto-negative) force? If the above conclusions from familiar observed effects are logical, are we not now in a position to state that the one and only possible direction for any of these magneto-radiational effects is the direction of mutual repulsion, which is outward from a common center, as shown in Figure 4?
It is an experimentally proved and admitted fact that any electric current exerts itself in two directions. It is admitted that an electric current does not flow until polarization begins or that polarization begins when an electric current begins, and also that the strength of the current increases simultaneously with an increase in the "charge" or "moment" or "strength" of the poles. It is also equally admitted that any potential either greater or less than the potential which it displaces seeks opposite directions. It is known that one of these directions results in charging both potentials and the other direction discharges both. In the face of this evidence in observed effects, it is reasonable to state that there is a generoactive, positive force which acts simultaneously with the recognized negative, radioactive force. If the positive force is a charging force and the negative force a discharging force, is it proper to refer to negative charge in a mass when there can be no such thing as "negative charge." We must properly define this force as "negative discharge."
This brings us to an effect which is one of the most obvious of Nature's effects but which is stoutly denied by the modern physicist, that every mass in Nature is doubly charged. We know that all organic life is both male and female, each individual or cell being just preponderantly male or female. We know that all generating bodies or currents are simultaneously radiating. We know that all heating bodies are cooling through radiation, and that all cooling bodies are heating through contraction. We see everywhere in Nature, especially on our planet, the generative effect of charging, and the simultaneous degenerating effect of discharging, yet the modern physicist insists, although he finds no precedent in nature, that an entire body is either negatively or positively "charged." He defines a negatively "charged" body as one which has added some electrons, and a positively "charged" body as one which has lost some electrons.
Nature's electrical practice is obviously different from this supposed state of facts. The theory is, probably, inherited with the old theory that the universe is running down gradually and not winding itself up simultaneously to balance its degeneration. Does it not seem more rational to suppose that the formation of every mass in nature is the result of a pressure gradient developed by the solenoid principle which first steps energy up to ever-increasing pressure; and that the destruction of that mass is caused by a preponderance of the discharging force which then steps it down to an equilibrium?
The sun is contracting. That means that it is not mature, not having yet reached the equilibrium limit of its wave impulse. We know this to be true for it has not yet become a sphere, nor has its magnetic pole coincided with its pole of rotation, as it will when this solar system has reached the amplitude position of its wave. It is still winding more tightly the spiral turns of its step up transformer principle, which increases the number of its turns and, as a consequence, narrows up the spaces between them exactly as a clock spring would tighten as it winds up. This is the generoactive principle of nature which we recognize in our mechanical equivalent as a solenoid.
We know that an electric current centripetally passed through a spirally coiled wire to a central point, transforms a given quantum of potential energy which is distributed over a large area under low pressure, into a spiral pressure gradient culminating in exceedingly high pressure at its core. We know also that a flux of lines of force radiate in an outward direction from a common center. We know also that the voltage pressure of the "field" of pressure which surrounds the solenoid, gradually lowers until it reaches an equilibrium, then reverses its direction and returns to the opposite pole from which it was ejected. We know also that if another solenoid coil or a hundred of them were placed near by, the radiated energy from each would interchange with more or less difficulty according to the conductivity of the insulating medium with which every solid surrounds itself. Pressure or density of this atmospheric insulator determines its conductivity and inductivity, which are two directions of the same thing. Proximity determines the strength of the fields between solids, and density determines proximity.
Let us then consider the sun as a huge solenoid which steps up its energy to high pressure toward its core and steps it down to low pressure out in space. In the first instance, the energy of increasing pressure is generated, and in the second instance, it is radiated. When radiated energy leaves any charging body, whether it be a sun, planet, bar of steel, solenoid or storage battery, it is a discharge in respect to the body from which it has been ejected. When that radiated energy changes its mutually repellent lines of divergence at an equilibrium point between the ejecting mass which discharged it to mutually attractive, converging lines which head toward the gravitative center of the next mass, is it not plain to see that the negative discharging force of radiation becomes a positive charging force of gravitation?
Is it not apparent that the energy stepped down from the sun, for example, which we call radiant energy, is converted into generative energy as it steps up its voltage pressure in our planet? Is it not perfectly plain that the direction of a step down transformation of energy is exactly the opposite direction of that taken by a step up transformer?
Is it not evident that a charging force moves in the opposite direction from a discharging force? If these premises are well founded, is it not impossible for a charging force to be attracted by a discharging force? How then did the error creep into our consciousness? Is it not the same reasoning that once convinced men that the earth was fiat because they said "I see it with my own eyes?"
For an illustration of the practical workings of the solenoid principle, let us imagine a room of one thousand cubic feet.
Within that room is a certain quantum of potential energy expressed as air pressure which we will define as X quantity.
In its expanded state of uniform, equal pressure, this energy will do no work.
If, however, a tank of one cubic foot (Figure 5) were placed at the center of the room and all of the air content of the room were pumped into that tank, the energy so pumped in would be equivalent to stepped up electrical energy while on the inward Journey
It would also be equivalent to a charging or generating force. It would be a positive force, for all lines of force are mutually attracting toward a common center of greater density.
It would also perform work while being compressed. If this energy were released through a small tube, it would perform work for a long time, but if discharged through a large tube, it would perform the same amount of work in a short time.
It would then be a negative, or discharging force, for all lines are mutually repelling toward an expanded area of lower density.
The X quantum of energy would still remain the same; the only difference would be that it had been divided into two pressures, a low pressure and a high pressure which is equivalent to a low potential and a high potential, or to vacuity and density.
This is all that Nature does to perform work, whether to create a storm or a solar system. Whenever one equilibrium pressure is divided into two opposing pressures, each one of the two tries to destroy the other in order that they may each return to the stability of an equilibrium. It is this universal desire of all force to return to its potential state of stability in equilibrium which performs all of the work of the universe. This is a universal law applicable to everything in Nature. If a man, for example, is made comfortable and thoroughly at ease, he is deprived of the incentive for work. Make him uncomfortable or place him in danger and he becomes intensively active until his stability is recovered.
Our solar system is composed of a series of generated solids of compressed energy all of which are in their comfortable and appropriate potential positions of the moment, but are constantly changing to the proper potential positions of the next moment.
A condition or position of stability is impossible to maintain in this universe of changing potential between any two masses. Constant readjustment of potential demands constant readjustment of position. Let us assume that the tank of air above described was surrounded by a circle of others and connected by tubes of lessening diameter. The discharge of the high pressure tank would charge the next one and discharge into the succeeding one, and so on until the entire X quantity of energy was all short circuited into an equilibrium. During this process of continuing motion, wheels could be made to turn between the tanks. When the energy became equalized, motion and work would both cease.
In this same manner, the sun steps down its own energy along its equatorial belt by radioactive discharge and steps it up for Mercury by generoactive charge just as the human voice is stepped down into disappearance and condensed again by radio or the cliff side. Mercury's negative discharge becomes positive charge for Venus. And so on, all down the pressure gradient of the system down to Neptune, and beyond, the energy of the high pressure vortex of generated energy in the sun is utilized to the last volt in repetitive sequences as it escapes from the sun's exhaust at its hot equator and returns as regenerated energy to its relatively cold poles, and to the cold poles of all the planets.
Nature does not waste one volt of pressure in an entire solar system, or in a Milky Way, or in ten thousand galaxies. All of it is regenerated for re-radiation forever and forever.