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Carnot Cycle

First presented by Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot in 1824.

Process 1 is an isothermal process at a low temperature T2, and during this process an amount of heat is taken from the working substance.

Process 2 is an adiabatic process during which the temperature is raised from T1 to T2.

Process 3 is an isothermal process at high temperature T1, and during this process an amount of heat is given to the working substance.

Process 4 is an adiabatic process during which the temperature drops from T1 to T2, the beginning temperature.

The inventors and discoverers of the last century were a curious and bold lot. It was during this time period that basic research into the fundamentals of nature were most aggressively pursued. One of the more interesting developments of that period was that of perpetual motion machines. This quest for a costless supply of power was due in part from all the exploratory work being done with the second law of thermodynamics which is not really a law but a generalization of conditions or processes of closed systems. Basically this generalization says that certain processes cannot be reversed such as a house burning down which cannot have the fire reversed and the house renewed. A reversible (open system) process can be water being converted into steam and then renewed back into water.

As early as 1824 a hypothetical process for developing motive power was invented using only reversible cycles. This particular cycle was first used by Sadi Carnot in 1824 as a basis for his celebrated theorem concerning the efficiency of a perfect engine and it is called the Carnot cycle. An ideal arrangement in which a working substance could be carried through a Carnot cycle is called a Carnot engine.

The Carnot cycle can be used in a variety of forms and the four reversible processes which go to make up the cycle are as follows:

Process 1 is an isothermal process at a low temperature T2, and during this process an amount of heat H2 is taken from the working substance (steam).

Process 2 is an adiabatic process during which the temperature is raised from T1 to T2.

Process 3 is an isothermal process at high temperature T1, and during this process an amount of heat H1 is given to the working substance.

Process 4 is an adiabatic process during which the temperature drops from T1 to T2, the beginning temperature.

Another way to describe these processes which makes a little more sense is:

Process 1. Compress a gram of working substance (steam) from volume s to volume w and condense all but an infinitesimal residue of the steam to water, taking an amount of heat L from the substance, thus keeping the temperature constant. During this process an amount of work equal to (s-w) x p will be done ON the substance.

Process 2. Continue the compression by an infinitesimal amount without taking heat from the substance, thus condensing the residue of steam to water and causing temperature and pressure to rise to T+∆T and p+∆p, respectively.

Process 3. Expand the gram of substance from volume w to volume s and vaporize all but an infinitesimal residue of water by giving sufficient heat to the substance to keep the temperature constant at T+∆T. During this process an amount of work equal to (s-w) x (p+∆p) will be done BY the substance.

Process 4. Continue the expansion by an infinitesimal amount without giving heat to the substance, thus vaporizing the residue of water and causing temperature and pressure to fall to the initial values T and p, respectively.

The second set of processes is called Clapeyron's relation and was first proposed by the French physicist Clapeyron in 1834 and is functionally equivalent to the Carnot cycle.

The Carnot cycle was a curiosity to the courageous scientists of the 1800s. The first use to come of it was done by William Thomson (later Lord Kelvin) as a part of his generalization - the theory of the dissipation of energy. He called his device a 'heat multiplier' in 1852. This device and subsequent work developed into refrigeration and the common heat pump we are familiar with today.

John Keely eventually used these ideas in his work with his Etheric Vapor devices. The Carnot cycle describes a perfect mechanical system using a perfect gas. Keely's etheric vapor supposedly far surpassed known qualities of available gases. He was on the right track because we know the fact that ordinary heat pumps take one unit of energy to run them and then the heat pump puts out from three to four times that same amount of energy in the form of heat.

What? An overunity device has been laying around for 150 years and no one has done anything with it? People have done work with this concept; Keely and now the Dennis Lee people.

Now, from our ongoing studies of Sympathetic Vibratory Physics, we know that heat is a vibratory condition. The frequencies of the electromagnetic scale just below those of visible light are called infrared and are primarily responsible for heat generation. So if we approach a heat pump cycle and functions as though they were a vibratory device operating with vibrating media we would be closer to the true nature of the subject than if we stuck with trying to convert heat into motive power. Either method should result in success however.

Heat can and is a manifest characteristic of atomic substances. However heat is not evident in a sub-gaseous, sub-plasma substances. Only the vibrations are evident albeit of a much shorter wave length and higher frequency. So – heat and vibration are one and the same thing, generally speaking.

The Carnot cycle is a good exemplification of the Law of One. A substance expands and then contracts over and over again. Is this not what a vibration does as it goes from a positive (expansive) phase to its negative (contracting) phase? So herein lies another of Keely's secrets. Sympathetic vibrations between two or more objects will result in resonance. Does not resonance under great amplitude release tremendous forces? Of course it does. Would not a cloud of phonons represent a more perfect gas (quasi vacuum) than the atmospheric gases when considered free of molecular and atomic interferences? Yes again. See Universal Heart Beat

Theoretically, if we used the positive and negative phases of a vibration under the proper mechanical arrangements might we not expect to create a more perfect rendition of the Carnot cycle? This is what Keely proposed and accomplished. His subsequent machines developed much more power than it took to run them just like the modern day perpetual motion device we call a heat pump. The heat pump would be a perpetual motion device except for the fact that only one person to my knowledge ever had enough common sense to extract motive power from a it.

The question arises as to where does this extra energy come from in a heat pump? There is only so much 'warm' air outside in a snow storm yet the device delivers warm air inside a house. The compressor unit supplies heat in the form of pressure to the working substance but only so many BTUs are being expended in this compressing process and much fewer than are measured at the heating element. So where can the extra energy come from? There is only one place – from the molecular and atomic destruction of the working substance.

From our work with cavitation we know that a sudden release of pressure will cause nucleation and a subsequent release of atomic forms of energy. This atomic energy release is non-ionic and hence completely benign and safe. The working substance in the heat pump circuit is caused to expand quiet rapidly and we can assume a low level nucleation or cavitation is taking place at that point in the fluidic circuitry. Voila! We have free energy and hence an increase of temperature and pressure which can be used to drive a rotary power take-off device not to mention heating one's home.

Here we have a wide doorway into Keely's workshop. Take all the above combine it with understanding of mechanical acoustical resonators and we can replicate much of Keely's work with ether and resonant devices. Please keep in mind he didn't stop with this relatively low level of technology but went on to develop and work with a much higher level of science based on the negative attractive forces. These negative attractive forces and devices will have to be dealt with in future articles.

So now we know what subjects we need to bone up on and what devices and technology we can use to build any number of designs of free energy devices. We can all study cavitation, heat pumps, Carnot cycle, SVP (vibration physics) and thermodynamics. The question remains: What are you going to do about all this? (Dale Pond, circa 1991)
(Franklin, William S. and MacNutt, Barry; Heat - A Text Book for Colleges and Technical Schools; Franklin and Charles, Lancaster, PA, 1923)

See Also

5.8.5 - The complete Contraction Expansion Cycle is as follows
8.23 - Law of Cycles
Compression
Cycle of Temperature
Dispersion
Dynaspheric Force
Entropy
First Law of Thermodynamics
Law of Cycles
LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
Laws of Thermodynamics
Motion Cycle
Rhythmic Balanced Interchange
Second Law of Thermodynamics
Supercritical Fluid
Syntropy
Thermodynamics
Third Law of Thermodynamics
Universal Heart Beat


Page last modified on Monday 24 of October, 2011 01:32:48 MDT

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